equality/files/documents/anesi.info (accessed 15 June ). post (5 February) anesi.info ( accessed 15 anesi.info%20report-def- anesi.info The annual mean Arctic sea-ice extent decreased over the period to , Over the period to , global mean sea level rose by [ to. VEF's first investment. VEF's ownership share. % Since its launch in , more than 9 mln people have saved or borrowed.
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The Global Competitiveness Report – Full. Data Edition – Accelerating a Robust We define competitiveness as the set of institutions. The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe in the s to .. The PDF Reference also defines ways that third parties can define their own PDF file formats in use as of can include tags, text equivalents, . define, identify, describe the following: 1. C) liabilities. 8 percent from to , down from 4. 0 91 Comparison of Alternates and Decision Analysis Chapter.
Archived from the original on 8 September Defense Technical Information Center. Jared; Wiley, David A. Paths can be stroked, filled, clipping. IT Professional 12 6 November , pg. Students can refer to Economics — A Singapore Perspective for the diagrams.
Open content and Open collaboration. Free and open-source software portal. Free software Free software community Free software movement List of open source software packages Open-content Open source advocacy Open source hardware Open Source Initiative Open Source Software Institute Open source software security Open source video games All articles with titles containing "Open source" Proprietary software Shared source Timeline of open source software. Laurent, Andrew M. O'Reilly Media.
Principles and Performance". Organization Science. Free Software Magazine. Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 8 September Archived from the original on 18 January Review of Network Economics. Retrieved But the problem went deeper than that. The word "free" carried with it an inescapable moral connotation: Those were merely pleasant side effects of a motive that was, at its root, neither technical nor mercantile, but moral.
Furthermore, the "free as in freedom" position forced a glaring inconsistency on corporations who wanted to support particular free programs in one aspect of their business, but continue marketing proprietary software in others.
Charny 3 May CNET News. Free and Open Source Software. IT Professional 12 6 November , pg. The problem with it is twofold. Second, the term makes a lot of corporate types nervous.
Duke University press - durham and london. Prior to , Free Software referred either to the Free Software Foundation and the watchful, micromanaging eye of Stallman or to one of thousands of different commercial, avocational, or university-research projects, processes, licenses, and ideologies that had a variety of names: The term Open Source, by contrast, sought to encompass them all in one movement.
Public-domain software is written by microcomputer hobbyists also known as "hackers" many of whom are professional programmers in their work life.
After the Netscape announcement broke in January I did a lot of thinking about the next phase -- the serious push to get "free software" accepted in the mainstream corporate world. And I realized we have a serious problem with "free software" itself.
Specifically, we have a problem with the term "free software", itself, not the concept. I've become convinced that the term has to go. Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press. Netscape Communications Corporation.
Archived from the original on Netscape Communications. This event marked a historical milestone for the Internet as Netscape became the first major commercial software company to open its source code, a trend that has since been followed by several other corporations.
Since the code was first published on the Internet, thousands of individuals and organizations have downloaded it and made hundreds of contributions to the software. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. Retrieved 22 July Open Source Initiative. Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 13 May Philosophy of the GNU Project.
Free Software Foundation. Retrieved July 23, As the advocates of open source draw new users into our community, we free software activists have to work even more to bring the issue of freedom to those new users' attention.
We have to say, 'It's free software and it gives you freedom! Every time you say 'free software' rather than 'open source,' you help our campaign. Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage Countless companies seek to offer such temptation, and why would users decline? Only if they have learned to value the freedom free software gives them, for its own sake.
It is up to us to spread this idea—and in order to do that, we have to talk about freedom. A certain amount of the 'keep quiet' approach to business can be useful for the community, but we must have plenty of freedom talk too.
Under the pressure of the movie and record companies, software for individuals to use is increasingly designed specifically to restrict them. Their idea is that by publishing the source code of programs designed to restrict your access to encrypted media, and allowing others to change it, they will produce more powerful and reliable software for restricting users like you.
Then it will be delivered to you in devices that do not allow you to change it. This software might be 'open source,' and use the open source development model; but it won't be free software since it won't respect the freedom of the users that actually run it. If the open source development model succeeds in making this software more powerful and reliable for restricting you, that will make it even worse. Software Freedom and Intellectual Property Law". Pham, Verint Systems Inc. Weinstein and Jamie L.
Categorizing Open Source Licenses "; www. June BBC News. Karl Michael Best Practices for commercial use of open source software. Norderstedt, Germany: Books on Demand.
In Robert A. Gehring, Bernd Lutterbeck. Technical University of Berlin. Survey and Study Part V". International Institute of Infonomics. Chief Information Officer.
Info Systems Journal. Harvard Business Review.
Journal of Medical Internet Research. Harvard Management Update: Java Genetic Algorithms Package. Bleris Info System Journal. Smashing Magazine. IBM developerworks. Open Source Software Institute. Open Source for America. Karl Michael; Meyer, Ralf Profit from Software Ecosystems: Proprietary Software". PCWorld Business Center.
Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 9 October Open-source versus proprietary software: Is one more reliable and secure than the other? IBM Systems Journal, 44 2 , Fewer Bugs Than Rivals". Duke University press - Durham and London. GNU Project. Retrieved 23 August The decision to approve was informed by the overwhelming though not unanimous consensus from the open source community that these licenses satisfied the 10 criteria of the Open Source definition, and should, therefore, be approved.
The Telegraph. Computer Weekly. Retrieved December 6, However, not all of the users and developers of free software agreed with the goals of the free software movement. In , a part of the free software community splintered off and began campaigning in the name of 'open source. Retrieved July 29, The Cathedral and the Bazaar.
Software distribution. Abandonware End-of-life Long-term support Software maintenance Software maintainer Software publisher. Digital rights management Software protection dongle Hardware restrictions License manager Product activation Product key Software copyright Software patent Torrent poisoning.
Free and open-source software. Alternative terms for free software Comparison of open-source and closed-source software Comparison of source code hosting facilities Free software Free software project directories Gratis versus libre Long-term support Open-source software Open-source software development Outline. Free software movement History Open-source software movement Organizations Events. Intellectual property activism. Artificial scarcity Copyright infringement Digital rights management Gripe site Legal aspects of file sharing Mashup digital music videos Monopolies of knowledge Music piracy Orphan works Patents biological software software patent debate trolling Public domain.
All rights reversed Alternative compensation system Anti-copyright notice Business models for open-source software Copyleft Commercial use of copyleft works Commons-based peer production Free content Free software license Libertarian positions Open content Open-design movement Open Music Model Open patent Open-source hardware Open-source software Prize system contests Share-alike Video on demand.
Access to Knowledge movement Anti-copyright Cultural environmentalism Free-culture movement Free software movement. Copyright Alliance. Free-culture and open-source movements. Commons-based peer production Crowdsourcing Gratis versus libre Open collaboration Openness Participatory culture Sharism. Peer-to-peer banking Peer-to-peer carsharing Peer-to-peer lending Peer-to-peer ridesharing.
Collaborative writing Democratic media Open publishing Participatory media Peer review. Open education Educational resources University Admissions Open-door academic policy.
Citizen media Citizen journalism and Wiki journalism Open-source journalism. Gift economy Open innovation Open patent Open standard Sharing economy. Open government Open-source governance. Independent production. Circuit bending Experimental musical instrument.
Home movies Amateur film Amateur pornography Fan film Machinima. Independent soft drink Homebrewing Microbrewery. Authority control NDL: Retrieved from " https: Free software Software licenses.
Not only can they restrict document access but they also reliably enforce permissions in ways that the standard security handler does not.
The signature is used to validate that the permissions have been granted by a bona fide granting authority. For example, it can be used to allow a user: For example, Adobe Systems grants permissions to enable additional features in Adobe Reader, using public-key cryptography.
Adobe Reader verifies that the signature uses a certificate from an Adobe-authorized certificate authority. Any PDF application can use this same mechanism for its own purposes. PDF files can have file attachments which processors may access and open or save to a local filesystem. PDF files can contain two types of metadata.
This is stored in the optional Info trailer of the file. A small set of fields is defined, and can be extended with additional text values if required. This method is deprecated in PDF 2.
This allows metadata to be attached to any stream in the document, such as information about embedded illustrations, as well as the whole document attaching to the document catalog , using an extensible schema. PDFs may be encrypted so that a password is needed to view or edit the contents.
PDF 2. PDF files may also contain embedded DRM restrictions that provide further controls that limit copying, editing or printing. These restrictions depend on the reader software to obey them, so the security they provide is limited. PDF documents can contain display settings, including the page display layout and zoom level.
Adobe Reader uses these settings to override the user's default settings when opening the document. Anyone may create applications that can read and write PDF files without having to pay royalties to Adobe Systems ; Adobe holds patents to PDF, but licenses them for royalty-free use in developing software complying with its PDF specification.
PDF files can be created specifically to be accessible for disabled people. Some software can automatically produce tagged PDFs, but this feature is not always enabled by default. Adding tags to older PDFs and those that are generated from scanned documents can present some challenges. One of the significant challenges with PDF accessibility is that PDF documents have three distinct views, which, depending on the document's creation, can be inconsistent with each other. The three views are i the physical view, ii the tags view, and iii the content view.
The physical view is displayed and printed what most people consider a PDF document.
The tags view is what screen readers and other assistive technologies use to deliver a high-quality navigation and reading experience to users with disabilities. The content view is based on the physical order of objects within the PDF's content stream and may be displayed by software that does not fully support the tags view, such as the Reflow feature in Adobe's Reader.
PDF attachments carrying viruses were first discovered in It was activated with Adobe Acrobat, but not with Acrobat Reader.
From time to time, new vulnerabilities are discovered in various versions of Adobe Reader,  prompting the company to issue security fixes. Other PDF readers are also susceptible. One aggravating factor is that a PDF reader can be configured to start automatically if a web page has an embedded PDF file, providing a vector for attack.
A PDF file is often a combination of vector graphics , text, and bitmap graphics. The basic types of content in a PDF are:. Two PDF files that look similar on a computer screen may be of very different sizes.
For example, a high resolution raster image takes more space than a low resolution one. Typically higher resolution is needed for printing documents than for displaying them on screen. Other things that may increase the size of a file is embedding full fonts, especially for Asiatic scripts, and storing text as graphics. PDF viewers are generally provided free of charge, and many versions are available from a variety of sources.
Raster image processors RIPs are used to convert PDF files into a raster format suitable for imaging onto paper and other media in printers, digital production presses and prepress in a process known as rasterisation. Adobe Acrobat is one example of proprietary software that allows the user to annotate, highlight, and add notes to already created PDF files. Freeware Qiqqa can create an annotation report that summarizes all the annotations and notes one has made across their library of PDFs.
There are also web annotation systems that support annotation in pdf and other documents formats. In cases where PDFs are expected to have all of the functionality of paper documents, ink annotation is required. Examples of PDF software as online services including Scribd for viewing and storing, Pdfvue for online editing, and Thinkfree , Zamzar for conversion. The company released an upgrade to their Harlequin RIP with the same capability in Agfa-Gevaert introduced and shipped Apogee, the first prepress workflow system based on PDF, in The Preview application can display PDF files, as can version 2.
The files are then exported in PDF 1. When taking a screenshot under Mac OS X versions The Free Software Foundation once thought of as one of their high priority projects to be "developing a free, high-quality and fully functional set of libraries and programs that implement the PDF file format and associated technologies to the ISO standard.
Poppler is based on Xpdf   code base.
There are also commercial development libraries available as listed in List of PDF software. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see PDF disambiguation. Main article: See also: For a more comprehensive list, see List of PDF software.
Comparison of notetaking software. Software portal. Retrieved The Inquirer. Archived from the original on December 13, European Commission. The Committee is concerned about the stability of the XFA specification Part 2 will reference XFA 3. Archived from the original PDF on Adobe Systems. Base 14 Fonts — Definition". Archived from the original on Strengths and Weaknesses" PDF.
Web Accessibility Center. Adobe Reader's 'Read Aloud' Feature". The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, PDFTron Systems. The Linux Foundation. Linux Foundation. Retrieved 21 June Content of the latter page, however, changes over time. CS1 maint: Free Software Foundation. Graphics file formats. Category Comparison. Multi-purpose office document file formats.
ISO standards by standard number. Retrieved from " https: Computer-related introductions in Adobe Inc. Hidden categories: Uses authors parameter All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from February Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements Commons category link is on Wikidata Webarchive template wayback links.
Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 16 April , at