Download NCERT Solutions Biology Class 12, Free download in pdf NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology for all chapters in NCERT book. Chapter wise. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 all subjects in PDF form free download. Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Physical Education, Business studies imp questions. NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology PDF Download. NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms, Chapter 2 Sexual.
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When a piece of DNA gets integrated into the genome of the recipient, it may multiply and be inherited along with the host DNA.
This happens because the alien piece of DNA has become part of a chromosome, which has the ability to replicate. In a chromosome there is a specific DNA sequence called the origin of replication, which is responsible for initiating replication.
Thus, an alien DNA is linked with the origin of replication, so that, this alien piece of DNA can replicate and multiply itself in the host organism.
Bioreactors are vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products, individual enzyme, etc. A bioreactor provides the optimal conditions for achieving the desired product by providing optimum growth conditions temperature, pH, substrate, salts, vitamins, oxygen.
After the biosynthetic stage, the products are subjected through a series of processes, such as separation and purification, before it is ready for marketing as a finished product. PCR means polymerase chain reaction.
In this reaction multiple copies of gene of interest is synthesised in vitro using two sets of primers and the enzyme DNA polymerase. The enzyme extends the primers using the nucleotides provided in the reactuion and the genome DNA as template. The segment of DNA can be amplified to approximately billion ties if the process of replication of DNA is repeated many times.
Restriction enzymes are also called molecular scissors. By the use of restriction enzymes it is possible to cut DNA sequence. It acts on both the strands and produce a break.
When restriction enzymes make a cut in DNA strand, it will leave a single stranded portion at ends. These are overhanging called sticky ends.
Sticky ends can make H-bonds with their complementary cut counterparts by DNA ligase. It is a type of enzyme which is treated with animal or plant tissue to break the cell open to release DNA along with other macromolecules such as RNA, proteins etc.
Principle and Processes in PDF format.
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Required desktop or laptop with internet connection. Test Generator for Teachers. Test Generator. Reproduction in Organisms. Download NCERT Solutions for CBSE Class 12 Biology Reproduction in Organisms Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; modes of reproduction - asexual and sexual reproduction; asexual reproduction - binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants.
Go To Downloads. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants. Human Reproduction. Reproductive Health. Principles of Inheritance and Variation.
Molecular Basis of Inheritance. Human Health and Disease. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production.
Microbes in Human Welfare. Biotechnology Principles and Processes. Biotechnology and its Applications.