Monzó, J.: (), anesi.info (consultado Octubre de ) Chase, R.B., Aquilano, N.J., Jacobs, F.R.: Administración de Producción y. chase-administracion-de-operaciones-edsolucionario-pdf. 1. anesi.info; 2. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO. Palabras clave: sistemas de información contable, administración de la información, calidad de la .. información (AI) que se define como la producción, el con-.
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Administracion de Produccion y Operaciones - RICHARD j. anesi.info Uploaded by. Kay Ordaz Juárez. Download with Google Download with Facebook. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Administración de Producción: Sistemas y Síntesis / M.K. Starr; anesi.info: J. Prado R. | Traducción de: Production Management El. Libro de gran utilidad en materia de Producción y Gerencia de Operaciones.
Show related SlideShares at end. Another example would be whiskey, reducing the aging time would probably impact its quality. Explain how having more work-in-process inventory can improve the efficiency of a process? Therefore, this multifactor measure is a better indicator of productivity in this instance. In this case, new material is covered from one exam to the next. Exhibit 5.
Burger King's process is a combination of McDonald's old and new processes. The best Burger King can hope to do is match McDonald's with their orders that are assembled-to-order. The ones that are taken from finished goods will generally not be as fresh. Wendy's, on the other hand, should beat both McDonald's and Burger King on freshness, since they cook-to-order Make-to-order! State in your own words what Little's Law means.
Think of an example that you have observed where Little's Law applies. Little's Law shows the relationship between throughput rate, throughput time, and the amount of work- in-process inventory. Specifically, it is throughput time equals amount of work-in-process inventory divided by the throughput rate. Little's Law is useful for examining the performance of a process. Example 5. Explain how having more work-in-process inventory can improve the efficiency of a process?
How can this ever be bad? More work-in-process inventory can be used to buffer multiple stage processes. Specifically, it can help with blocking or starving. Blocking is when the activities in the stage must stop because there is no place to deposit the item just completed.
Starving is when the activities in a stage must stop because there is no work. Buffer inventories between operations can help relieve these problems, and improve the efficiency of the overall process.
Increasing work-in-process inventory can be bad in that it involves more investment in inventory, as well as taking-up valuable floor space.
Also, the JIT philosophy view work-in-process as being negative for a variety of reasons more on JIT in a later chapter. Recently some Operations Management experts have begun insisting that simple minimizing process velocity, which actually means minimizing the time that it takes to process something through the system, is the single most important measure for improving a process.
Can you think of a situation when this might not be true? The problem with focusing exclusively on process velocity is that other dimensions might be ignored, such as quality or safety.
There are many examples. One would be if drying time was reduced, this might impact the quality of the process. Another example would be whiskey, reducing the aging time would probably impact its quality.
Traditional method: Alternative method: Therefore, the traditional method is best. The longest process on this "assembly line" will govern the output. Therefore, the maximum output from this line will be: Therefore, this line cannot produce the 2, students per week. The average amount being supplied is only 2. The market will be shy by. One operator per project: The productivity of this option is also 1. For the two operator approach, www. The first operator would be idle for an average of 10 minutes each project.
The labor content for the first option is hours. The second option requires hours of labor. Current plans are to make units of component A, then units of component B, then units of component A, then units of component B, etc, where the setup and run times for each component are given below. This packaging time is small enough that you can ignore it. What is the average hourly output, in terms of the number of units of packaged product which includes 1 component A and 1 component B?
Chapter 5 66 6. If we take the maximum of orders then: Orders are taken for 12 hours. Process Analysis 67 d. Orders are picked for 15 hours. Chapter 5 68 8. We can not handle all the customers by 5: The last customers are processed after National State closes their doors at 5: The maximum waiting time is A customer should complete service every.
The expected output is 3. But, after simulating this process, the actual output would be less due to the starving that takes place in the system.
Why might practicing managers and industrial engineers be skeptical about job enrichment and sociotechnical approaches to job design? Job enrichment by definition moves away from specialization, which, from a purely mechanical standpoint, is the most efficient way to work.
Sociotechnical approaches include job enrichment as a design strategy and in addition emphasize worker and work group autonomy. Thus, managers and industrial engineers have legitimate concerns about the implications of these approaches on output, planning, and control.
Professors commonly complain to their families that book writing is hard work and that they should be excused from helping out with the housework so that they can rest. Which exhibit in this chapter should they never let their families see? Exhibit TN5. Thus, from a purely physical standpoint, professors cannot plead overwork on the job to avoid chores at home. Is there an inconsistency when a company requires precise time standards and encourages job enlargement?
This depends greatly on the job at hand. However, if the elements of the enriched job are well defined and standardized, there is no reason why objective standards cannot be set for enriched jobs. As an aside, it is worth emphasizing that work simplification notions are not incompatible with any of the behaviorally oriented approaches to job design. Match the following techniques to their most appropriate application; a. Worker-machine chart a.
Washing clothes at a Laundromat b. Process chart b. Tracing your steps in getting a parking permit c. Work sampling c.
Faculty office hours kept www. Technical Note 5 70 5. You have timed your friend, Lefty, assembling widgets. His time averaged 12 minutes for the two cycles you timed.
He was working very hard, and you believe that none of the nine other operators doing the same job can beat his time. Are you ready to put this time forth as the standard for making an order of 5, widgets? If not, what else could you do? The average time in hours for the first two cycles is.
Since there are to be 5, widgets each requiring one cycle, then according to Exhibit TN5. Thus, six additional cycles should be timed.
Comment on the following: We have automated our office, and now we run every bill through our computer after our 25 clerks have typed the data into our computer database. Most large companies have specific policies on how standards are to be set and rarely would a union agree to the covert approach advocated in the above statement.
Wage incentives should never be instituted until jobs are measured and standardized. Organization wide financial incentive plans cover all the workers.
Some units or individuals may have contributed more to corporate profits than others. Does this detract from the effectiveness of the incentive plan system? How would your incentive scheme for a small software development firm compare to an established auto manufacturing firm? Employee participation is an important dimension of incentive plans. The contribution of units or individuals to corporate profits will naturally be different due to the law of diminishing marginal returns.
This means that effective plans will be designed to generate productivity improvements across the entire organization. A small software development www.
Job Design and Work Measurement 71 firm could likely get by with one general plan covering all employees, while a large automobile manufacturing company would likely apply different plans to the various parts of the organization. We have used this exercise to illustrate the fact that the degree of correspondence to the guidelines for job design is a pretty accurate predictor of the general level of subjective satisfaction people have with their jobs.
Similarly, if a person ended up with a score of three or more, they probably found it to be a fairly satisfactory job.
Technical Note 5 72 2. Job Design and Work Measurement 73 3. Time Assign Number 8: Random number Observation time 8: Technical Note 5 74 6.
Job Design and Work Measurement 75 9. Random number Observation time 9: What does the product-process matrix tell us? Where would you place a Chinese restaurant on the matrix? Products and processes are closely interrelated and both go through life-cycle stages. The stage in the lifecycle of the product will determine the process. The advantages of cost and flexibility can be combined through the adoption of Flexible Manufacturing Systems technology.
The Chinese restaurant case might be debatable since it involves both high volume and high variety. It has been noted that during World War II Germany made a critical mistake by having its formidable Tiger tanks produced by locomotive manufacturers, while American car manufacturers produced the less formidable U.
Sherman tank. Use the product-process matrix to explain that mistake and its likely result. The locomotive manufacturers likely used project technology and processes. This is low volume, high cost production. On the other hand, mass-producing automakers had the technology to make high volume at low per unit cost. How does the production volume affect break-even analysis?
A break-even analysis takes into account the production volume and the relevant cost of producing the volume by the available alternative processes. It calculates the relative profit or loss of the alternative processes, thus helping to decide which alternative to choose for a certain volume of production.
What is meant by a process? Describe its important features. A process means a set of tasks that transform input into useful outputs. The important features of process are a tasks, b flow of material and information , and c storage of material and information.
Assembly chart answers may vary. Chapter 6 78 b. Flow process chart answers may vary. Manufacturing Process Selection and Design 79 2. Chapter 6 80 2 Assembly chart www. Chapter 6 82 4 Process route sheets Part Name: Manufacturing Process Selection and Design 83 3.
Chapter 6 84 The capacity of the entire process is 8, units per week, with drilling machines limiting the overall capacity.
The capacity of the entire process is 9, units per week, with final assembly machines limiting the overall capacity. Higher c. Lower 5. Not possible. Determine capacity analysis, look at moving from job shop to continuous flow production, price low and make up profits in volume, analyze production deadlines in order to determine labor needs i.
General Workforce Skill Skilled workforce. Lower skill levels. Statistical Process Control Less important. More important. Facility Layout Process, functional. Product, line, flow. Labor intensity assuming you mean of workers would probably increase as well depends on the level of automation.
Ratio would increase in a flow shop because capital requirements are so much greater. What kind of layout is used in a physical fitness center? Process layout—similar equipment or functions are grouped together, such as rowing machines in one area, and weight machines in another.
The exercise enthusiasts move through the fitness center, following an established sequence of operations. SLP is used to evaluate and include qualitative factors and does not require numerical flow of items between departments. CRAFT is a quantitative heuristic program that requires a quantitative measure of interdepartmental work or information flow. What is the objective of assembly-line balancing? How would you deal with the situation where one worker, although trying hard, is 20 percent slower than the other 10 people on a line?
The objective is to create an efficient balance between the tasks and workstations to minimize idle time. Also, faster workers may assist the slowpoke if the balance and physical features of the line permit.
How do you determine the idle-time percentage from a given assembly-line balance? It is simply one minus efficiency, where efficiency is equal to the sum of the task times divided by the number of workstations times the cycle time.
What information of particular importance do route sheets and process charts discussed in Chapter 3 provide to the layout planner? Route sheets and process charts tell the layout planner the sequence of steps, the processing times, the equipment needed, and the delays and storage for the product to be made. Clearly, this information is critical to planning effective use of plant facilities. What is the essential requirement for mixed-model lines to be practical?
The need to develop a cycle mix that minimizes inventory build-up while keeping cycle time constant. Facility Layout 89 7. Why might it be difficult to develop a GT layout? Distinct parts families must exist.
This requires developing and maintaining a computerized parts classification and coding system. This can be a major expense. Several of each type of machine must be available. This could be an expensive proposition, given the cost of purchasing and maintaining duplicate sets of machinery.
Taking a machine out of a cluster should not rob a cluster of all of its capacity. There may be parts that cannot be associated with a family and specialized machinery that cannot be placed in a cell because of its general use.
Training personnel to perform multiple types of tasks may be initially difficult. Union regulations and interpersonal problems within a group working in a cell must be resolved before the cell is implemented. In what respects is facility layout a marketing problem in services? Give an example of a service system layout designed to maximize the amount of time the customer is in the system.
The facility layout must be designed to meet customer expectations. Unlike fast food outlets, many finer restaurants will try to maximize the time that a customer is in system via requiring a waiting period before seating customers even those with reservations.
Many customers will patronize the cocktail lounge thus enhancing profits. Consider a department store. Which departments probably should not be located near each other? Would any departments benefit from close proximity?
Ask the students to list the various types of departments in a department store. For example, typical departments include: There are obvious noncomplimentary departments such as tools and health and beauty aids. How would a flowchart help in planning the servicescape layout? What sorts of features would act as focal points or otherwise draw customers along certain paths through the service?
Which should be located last? The flowchart aids in monitoring the flow of customers through the service area. This would provide a means for providing a layout that minimizes the distance required for customers to reach the product. It should be remembered that certain popular items such as milk and eggs are kept at the rear of a store to cause the customer to walk through the store and increase impulse purchases. Cyprus Citrus Cooperative has many alternatives.
Below is the existing layout with the steps in the process numbered. Facility Layout 91 Students will identify many possible alternatives. Assuming that no jobs are combined, the following is a possibly: Mixed model balance. Technical Note 6 92 3. Facility Layout 93 4 a. Technical Note 6 94 5. Reduce cycle time to 25 7.
Facility Layout 95 6. Technical Note 6 96 c. Reduce cycle time to 81 seconds per unit. This produces 7.
Another option is to work 45 minutes overtime 7. There are many other options possible that are combinations of these two options.
Facility Layout 97 8. Technical Note 6 98 c. Excess3 6 1 2 54 20' 60' d. Thus, they will do a great deal of walking. It would be interesting to have the nursing staff develop closeness ratings and contrast them with that of administrators and M. Facility Layout 99 d. Reduce cycle time to Therefore, they are — Work May want to consider rebalancing the line.
There are 8! There are only two layout that satisfy all of the constraints. Facility Layout To make units per shift, station 3 will need to be duplicated. The system becomes less efficient due to the idle time at the parallel workstations. Technical Note 6 A cemetery? A summer camp for children? From the standpoint of society as a whole, the customer is the outside community.
However, when we say in a jail, then we are talking about the prisoners. Some evidence suggests that service, including quick delivery, has suffered as a result.
Could a service firm use production line approach or self-serve design and still keep a high customer focus personal attention? Explain and support your answer with examples. Yes, this is possible. In many instances, the customer actually desires more technology and feels that the service will not have as high a quality without it. For example, dental care with its mechanized X-ray techniques requires far less customer time and less exposure to radiation.
The self-service design can also support customer needs, for example the ATM provides customer access to funds at a variety of locations and 24 hours a day.
Why should a manager of a bank home office be evaluated differently than a manager of a bank branch? Since a bank home office typifies low contact quasimanufacturing, while a bank branch typifies medium contact mixed service, the problems faced by management differ considerably.
Identify the high-contact and low-contact operations of the following services: A dental office. Dental office high contact includes waiting rooms, receptionists, dentist s , hygienist s , x- ray, etc. An airline. Airline high contact includes reservations desk, loading concourse, plane with crew and attendants, etc. Low contact includes maintenance, baggage handling, tower operations, etc.
Chapter 7 c. An accounting office. In an accounting office, high contact includes reception and CPAs, while low contact includes records, computer, library, etc. An automobile agency Automobile agency high contact includes showroom and offices. Low contact includes maintenance, preparation, records-files, etc.
Service businesses that require face-to-face contact are least likely to be affected by knowledge outsourcing. However, as technology improves even medical diagnosis and treatment might take place at home where the patient would hook their selves up to the right monitoring system the could be fed directly to a doctor anywhere in the world.
Relative to the behavioral science discussion, what practical advice do you have for a hotel manager to enhance the ending of a guest's stay in the hotel? How about putting a couple of Starbuck's coffee coupons in the envelope along with the bill that is slipped under the door in the early morning of check-out day?
For guests staying several days, arrange to have the manager say a personal good bye. List some occupations or sporting events where the ending is a dominant element in evaluating success. Attorney's closing argument at trial; the professor's final lecture in the course; the comedian saving his best joke for last, the magician saving best trick for last; the "dismount" in all gymnastic exercises; the entry into the water in diving competitions. Behavioral scientists suggest that we remember events as snap shots, not movies.
How would you apply this to designing a service? What this means is that not all parts of the service are of equal impact in one's memory, and therefore place your resources on those areas that give you the most bang for the "memory buck.
You might even want to create them. For example, a Lexus dealership in Los Angeles hands out a long stemmed rose when a customer comes to the service counter to pay for car servicing.
While the general car servicing process involves mainly inconvenience, the "movie" experience was dominated by a positive snap shot of receiving a rose. Another example: At Splash Mountain at Disneyland, photographers regularly take pictures of people coming to the end of their ride.
These become the keepsakes long after the details of the day are forgotten. Some suggest that customer expectation is the key to service success. Give an example from your own experience to support or refute this assertion. Most responses will probably support rather than refute this assertion. Service Process Design and Selection Referring to the exhibit, the most logical placement would appear to be on-site technology.
Can a manufacturer have a service guarantee in addition to a product guarantee? Certainly, with some makes of automobiles, a rental car is guaranteed if the product fails. Many products are sold with warranties promising free and prompt service Suppose you were the manager of a restaurant and you were told honestly that a couple eating dinner had just seen a mouse.
What would you say to them?
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