Introduction to Work Study - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or and productivity centres in the numerous countries to which ILO technical. International Labour Organization George Kanawaty, International Labour Office, introduction to the subject for work study practitioners, teachers and students. Download PDF Authorized Self-study Guide, Building Scalable Cisco. collective rights at work, social protection and occupational safety and health, ISBN (pdf) introduction to the subject for work study.
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Introduction to work study. 4th revised edition. This highly successful book, which describes the basic techniques of work study as practiced in many parts of the. country. The ILO at Work: Development Results / International Labour Office. (web pdf), Geneva, , in Spanish: La OIT en acción: Resultados de The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other .. reduced job application costs through the introduction of. Intro to Work Study - ILO - George Kanawaty - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) , Text File .txt) or read book online.
Ineffective Time Due to the Management Figure 4. Plant Breakdowns add Conditions idle time of men and machines C. Machine Controls and Displays of Dials 7. Reflected glare from shiny surfaces such as ceilings and walls can be cut down by reducing the brightness of light sources. This is not the place to discuss the activities listed in the figure by which the management achieves the transformation of the resources at its disposal into finished products. Time during which man or machine or both are idle because the management has failed to plan. The use which is made of all these resources combined determines the pro- ductivity of the enterprise.
With this in mind, the present edition was prepared. Six new chapters dealing with production management approaches and their relation to work study were added Part Three , as well as a new chapter on method study at the office. The part dealing with work measurement Part Four was revised so as to encompass the whole spectrum of techniques ranging from macroscopic systems such as structured estimations to micro approaches such as predetermined time standards.
Sections on the use of information systems and computerization in work study were incorporated in the text alongside more traditional approaches. The chapters on working conditions and new forms of work organization were also revised in line with current thinking in these areas. We hope that with this new orientation the book will continue to enjoy the wide popularity and success with which it met in developing and industrialized countries alike.
In fact, to date and since it was first published in over , copies have been sold, so that Introduction to work study easily heads the list of best-selling books published by the ILO. The previous editions were also translated into many languages. The original edition was intended mainly as a training manual for use by people attending courses in work study at management development and productivity centres in the numerous countries to which ILO technical cooperation missions were attached.
It also aimed at providing basic teaching material for members of the staff of these centres. This original edition was prepared by the late C.
Wynne-Roberts, at the time Chief of the. R Ferney, Hy Fish, C. Kerkhoven, J. Shearer and Seymour Tilles. Several others such as F. Matthew contributed valuable criticism and commentaries. The second revised edition was published ten years later.
Certain aspects of the book, particularly the part on work measurement, were strengthened while the original intention of keeping the book as an introductory text to be used mainly for educational purposes was adhered to.
This edition was prepared by R. This revision benefited from the advice and collaboration of J. The third revised edition, published in , was intended to reorient the publication so as to make it equally useful to the work study practitioner, teacher and student.
Several new chapters were introduced, and other chapters modified substantially to accommodate developments in work study and also to illustrate how work study can contribute both to productivity improvement and to a safe and satisfying working environment.
Useful and valuable contributions were made by J. Burbidge, F. Evans, R. Lindholm, L. Parmaggiani and P. The current edition was again conceived and edited by George Kanawaty, Consultant and former Director of the ILO Training Department, who wrote many chapters of the new material while updating others. Particular acknowledgement is due to John Heap, of Leeds Polytechnic in the United Kingdom, for his valuable contribution to the present text and his earlier review of the previous edition.
They include K. Kogi, J. Thurman, D. Gold, J. Hiba, S. Machida, G. Trah, S. Li and N. Thanks are also due to Rolf Lindholm for updating the chapter on work organization. Klaus North of the ILO Entrepreneurship and Management Development Branch reviewed the previous edition and coordinated the preparation of the present one.
Last but not least, a work of this nature requires considerable technical, administrative and secretarial back-up. Beattie and L. Neil, and to D. Klingler, F. Kaufmann and C. Pett for their helpful and valued administrative and secretarial assistance. The index was compiled by P. Why is work study valuable?
The human factor in enterprise operations Work study and management 26 Work study and the supervisor 27 Work study and the worker 29 The work study practitioner General considerations 35 Occupational safety and health organization Safety criteria 37 The prevention of industrial accidents 39 Working premises 42 Good housekeeping 42 Lighting 45 Noise and vibration Working conditions and the working environment 1.
The human factor in the application of work study 1. Howthe total time of a job is made up 9 Interrelationship of the various methods used to reduce ineffective time.
Basic needs, quality of life and productivity What is productivity? Climatic conditions 55 Exposure to toxic substances 60 Personal protective equipment 61 Ergonomics 62 Working time 65 Work-related welfare facilities Record the facts 81 Examine critically: The questioning technique Develop the improved method Movement of workers and material The string diagram The worker-type flow process chart The multiple activity chart The travel chart Methods and movements at the workplace 1.
General considerations The principles of motion economy Classification of movements Further notes on workplace layout and simplification of movements Noteson the design of jigs, tools and fixtures Machine controls and displays of dials The two-handed process chart Micromotion study Other recording techniques The development of improved methods Evaluate, define, install, maintain 1. The approach to method study 75 Selecting the work to be studied 76 Limiting the scope of the work to be studied.
Evaluating alternative methods Defining the improved method Installing the improved method Preparing to make the changes Controlling the change-over Maintaining the new method Conclusion The importance of method study in the office The procedure for improving methods of work in the office Design and control of forms Office layout Quality control in the office Meaning and scope Statistical quality control The Taguchi approach Total quality control Work study and quality control.
The scope of production planning and control Production planning and control in continuous production Production planning and control in intermittent production Planning and control of special projects Work study and production planning and control The nature of the inventory problem Traditional approaches to inventory control Just-in-time inventory method Work study and inventory control Layout The handling of material Developments in manufacturing technology Process planning Work study, layout, handling and process planning.
The scope of maintenance Organization of maintenance Work study and maintenance Work sampling and structured estimating 1. What is time study? Time study: Selecting and timing the job 1. Selecting the job The approach to the worker Steps in making a time study Obtaining and recording information Checking the method Breaking the job into elements Deciding on the elements Sample size Timing each element: Stop-watch procedure.
The need for work sampling Afew words about sampling Establishing confidence levels Determination of sample size Making random observations Conducting the study Rated work sampling Group sampling techniques Using work sampling Structured estimating Definition The purpose of work measurement The uses of work measurement The basic procedure The techniques of work measurement The qualified worker The "average" worker Standard rating and standard performance Comparing the observed rate of working with the standard What is rated?
Summarizing the study Preparing the study summary sheet Extension: The calculation of basic time The selected time Completing the study summary sheet Electronic time study How many studies?
Setting time standards for work with machines 1. Plant and machine control Restricted work One worker and one machine Calculation of relaxation allowances Unoccupied time allowance Multiple machine work Predetermined time standards 1.
From study to standard time 1 2. Major considerations Developing the standard data Use of PTS systems to develop standard data Externally sourced standard data Computerized measurement systems The use of time standards 1. Definition of the work covered by time standards The work specification The standard unit of work Production planning and the utilization of plant and human resources Estimating production costs Standard costing and budgetary control Incentive schemes Organization of an information system associated with work measurement Combining methods and tasks: New forms of work organization 1.
Method study and work measurement: Basic tools for job design Design of individual work roles Design of group work in production Design of product-oriented organizations Design of enterprise-oriented organizations Criteria of good work organization: Some concluding remarks Appendices Glossary of terms used Check-list of useful questions in developing a new method of work Example of tables used to calculate relaxation allowances Conversion factors Selected bibliography Role of management in coordinating the resources of an enterprise 7 How operational time is made up 10 Basic and added work content 14 How management techniques can reduce ineffective time 15 Work study 20 The approach to work study 22 The four basic methods of controlling occupational hazards classified by decreasing order of effectiveness 38 Arrangement and storage of tools 44 Mounting of general lighting units 47 Need for generaliighting 47 Maximum recommended spacing for industrial-type units Engine stripping.
Inspecting and marking incoming parts original method Flow process chart: Inspecting and marking incoming parts original method Flow diagram: Inspecting and marking incoming parts improved method Flow process chart: Inspecting and marking incoming parts improved method A string diagram A simple movement study sheet String diagram: Storing tiles original method String diagram: Storing tiles improved method Flow diagram: Serving dinners in a hospital ward Flow process chart — Worker type: Serving dinners in a hospital ward Multiple activity chart: Inspection of catalyst in a converter original method Multiple activity chart: Inspection of catalyst in a converter improved method Multiple activity chart — Worker and machine: Finish mill casting original method Multiple activity chart — Worker and machine: Finish mill casting improved method Combined team work and machine multiple activity chart: Crushing bones original method Crushing bones: Layout of working area Combined team work and machine multiple activity chart: Crushing bones improved method Travel chart: Switch rotor assembly 88 Some charting conventions 90 Flow process chart: Planning and control for line production: Master production plan A block diagram in line manufacturing Work measurement A network diagram using crash times Different possibilities of handling the same object Re-order point and buffer stock Types of layout AnX-chart Changing functional layout to a line or product layout An example of a workstation layout Reducing component parts in product design An example of a specimen chart An X-chart: Process within control limits Computer-assisted design CA A personnel record form Computer-integrated manufacturing CIM Process drifting Normal and maximum working areas Atypical learning curve Weighted travel chart: Material handling The relationship between total costs to order and to carry and the number of orders placed The evolution of car painting Bar diagram or Gantt chart A procedure flow chart Developments in manufacturing technology From idea to final product A flow diagram in line manufacturing Proportional distribution of "heads" and "tails" tosses of five coins ata time Semi-circular and circular working arrangement Recommended dimensions for seated tasks Standard practice sheet A network diagram using normal times Developing the flow for a number of products.
Two-handed process chart: Cutting glass tubes improved method Various bins and motion-economy devices CPM activities The hierarchy of office systems. Cutting glass tubes original method Manoeuvrability of robots A simplified illustration of Kanban movement Working sheet Study summary sheet A decimal-minute stop-watch Time study continuation sheet page 2 Timestudy top sheet A graphical method of selecting basic time Distribution of times taken by workers to perform a given job Example of a simple work sampling record sheet Analysis of studies sheet Work sampling record sheet showing machine utilization and distribution of idle time Simple type of short cycle study form An example of a study summary sheet produced using electronic capture devices Time study boards Effect of payment-by-results incentive on the time taken to perform an operation An electronic stop-watch Nomogram for determining number of observations Short cycle study form front Time study continuation sheet page 3 Effect of ineffective time on performance How the standard time for a simple manual job is made up Result of method study on milling operation Explanatory diagram of machine time Four operations with machine elements Work sampling record sheet showing distribution of time on ten elements of work performed by a group of four workers Milling operation: Improved method Machine interference Allowances Continuation sheet for general-purpose time study front Sketch of part and of workplace layout Effect of extension on the time of an element Card giving details of elements and break points Cumulative average basic times for a constant element Short cycle study form back General-purpose time study top sheet Distribution curve showing probabilities of combinations when large samples are used Curve of normal distribution An electronic study board Extract from the analysis of studies sheet XV.
Example of standard data determined by MTM-2 tabular presentation Power press work: Example of standard data determined by MTM-2 algorithmic presentation Power press work: Standard data application form Compilation of computerized standard data: A schematic representation Deriving a computerized standard time for an operation MEZA scheme for developing standard data PLAZET scheme for deriving standard times of operations Some examples of the building of buffer stock in manufacturing operations Machine-paced line Worker-paced line Automated process Concentrated operation Assembly of motor car engines Line grouping and parallel grouping Schematic diagram of a flow-oriented group Flow group for the manufacture of pump axles Layout for a heat exchanger unit Manufacture of electric motors Tables 1.
Calculation of relaxation allowance Machine time and allowances PTS data levels: XVI 5. Properties of various industrial floor surfaces 43 Recommended minimum values of illumination for various classes of visual task 46 Recommended maximum lighting intensity ratios 46 Duration of continuous noise exposure which should not be exceeded to ensure the prevention of occupational deafness amongst the majority of workers 54 Control of working climate Pareto analysis — step 1 77 7.
Determining the sequence of time for random observations Restricted walking Standard data elements in light engineering and assembly work Minimum data required for work measurement and labour control records XVII. Pareto analysis — step 2 78 8. The most commonly used method study charts and diagrams 9. Examples of various rates of working on the principal rating scales 82 Classification of movements Components of a basic PTS Computation of standard time Scope of application of data Critical path method: Normal and crash times and costs for performing activities Base times for cross-cutting wood of varying width and thickness Methods-Time Measurement application data in tmu Specimen performance distribution Fitting a nut and washer on a stud Table of random numbers Final calculation of relaxation allowance Number of recommended cycles for time study MTM-2 data card Rated work sampling recording sheet Proportional distribution of "heads" and "tails" tosses of five coins at a time This is foreseen as an improvement in the quality of these basic needs.
By the year close to 1 billion people will be living below the poverty line and struggling to meet their basic needs. These basic needs are: D Food Enough food every day to generate the energy needed for living and working. D Clothing Enough clothing to afford protection from adverse weather conditions and to permit bodily cleanliness. For better-off segments of the population. D Shelter A shelter that provides protection under healthy conditions and that is equipped with certain household equipment and furniture.
D Health and essential services Safe drinking-water. By the year it will reach 6. For a society or a nation to raise the standard of living of its population. Basic needs. Human aspirations also extend to a desire for a healthier and cleaner environment. Over 90 per cent of that increase has occurred in developing countries. D Security Security against violence and against unemployment. Measured in monetary terms. His productivity calculated in terms of number of pots produced will then have increased by 25 per cent.
While this appears simple enough in cases where both the output and the input are tangible and can be easily measured. D Let us assume that as a result of a change in the method of work he was able to produce pots a month instead of with the same equipment and hours of work. Let us take an example.
What is productivity? Productivity may be defined as follows: Let us also assume that his production remained constant at pots a month. A potter working eight hours a day produces pots a month using a wood-fired kiln. If he wants to assess his productivity gain. This means that we have to distinguish between increased production and increased productivity. In other words.
His input has not changed. The term "productivity" can be used to assess or measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input. In a manufacturing concern. In a transport company.
Productivity in the individual enterprise Productivity in the individual enterprise may be affected by a series of external factors. In this book. This simple example helps to show that the factors affecting productivity in an organization are many. These external factors are beyond the control of any one employer.
Other factors. Thus productivity gains become more difficult to measure accurately because of these intangible factors and because of the time lag that needs to be estimated until users' satisfaction will permit an increase in prices of the pots produced in the new kiln.
In a service enterprise such as a public transport company or a travel agency. Many people have been misled into thinking of productivity exclusively as the productivity of labour.
It also becomes evident how. Examples of external factors include the availability of raw materials and skilled labour. The enterprise — like a driverless coach — moves forward jerkily.
Another factor of production or input is that of capital which. The use which is made of all these resources combined determines the productivity of the enterprise.
D Materials Materials that can be converted into products to be sold. In a travel agency it could be value of tickets sold or average value of tickets per customer. On the other hand. D Energy Energy in its various forms such as electricity. In any concern larger than a one-person business and to some extent even in a one-person business. D Human resources Men and women trained to perform the operational activity. Both manufacturing and service enterprises should equally be interested in consumers' or users' satisfaction.
If management fails to do what is necessary. The task of management The management of an enterprise is responsible for seeing that the enterprise resources mentioned above are combined in the best possible way to achieve the highest productivity.
In such a case. These are: D Land and buildings Land and buildings in a convenient location. Figure 1 illustrates this management function. D Machines and equipment Machines and equipment necessary for the operational activities of the enterprise. Thus management may be able to produce a larger quantity of. More frequently they will rely on specialists to assist them in this task.
It is rare. In the next chapter. Work study is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying on activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities being carried out.
To appreciate how work study acts to cut down costs and reduce the time of a certain activity. Glossary of terms used in management services. How the total time of a job is made up The time taken by a worker or a machine to carry out an operation or to produce a given quantity of a certain product may be considered as made up in the following manner.
There is first: The basic work content of the product or operation2 Work content means.
One of the most powerful tools they can use is that of work study. BS London. If work study results in cutting down the time of performing a certain activity by 20 per cent. The relation between productivity and work study is thus obvious.
The basic work content is the time taken to manufacture the product or to perform the operation if the design or specification of the product or service provided were perfect, if the process or method of operation were perfectly carried out, and if there were no loss of working time from any cause whatsoever during the period of the operation other than legitimate rest pauses permitted to the operative. The basic work content is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one unit of output.
This is obviously a perfect condition which never occurs in practice, although it may sometimes be approached, especially in line manufacturing or process industries. In general, however, actual operation times are far in excess of it on account of: Work content added by poor design or specification of product or its parts, or improper utilization of materials There are several ways in which unnecessary time and waste resulting in higher cost of the product can be attributed to poor design of the product or its parts, or to incorrect quality control.
Poor design and frequent design changes The product may be designed in such a way that it may require a large number of non-standard parts causing a lengthy time of assembly. Excessive variety of products and lack of standardization of products or their parts may mean that work has to be produced in small batches, with time lost as the operator adjusts and shifts from one batch to the next.
Waste of materials The components of a product may be so designed that an excessive amount of material has to be removed to bring them to their final shape. This increases the work content of the job and wastes material as well. Operations requiring cutting in particular need careful examination to see if the resulting waste can be reduced to a minimum or reused.
Incorrect quality standards Quality standards that are too high or too low can increase work content. In engineering industries, insisting on sometimes unnecessarily tight tolerances requires extra machining and a corresponding waste of material. On the other hand, setting tolerances too loose may result in a large number of rejects.
Deciding on the appropriate quality standard and the method of quality control is an important efficiency consideration. Work content added by inefficient methods of manufacture or operation Ineffective time and higher cost can result from a poor method of carrying out the operations, resulting in unnecessary movements of persons or materials.
Similarly, such ineffective time can be due to inappropriate handling methods, poor maintenance of machinery or equipment resulting in frequent breakdowns, or poor inventory control causing delays because of an absence of products or parts or higher costs as a result of overstocking.
Poor layout and utilization of space The space used for any operation represents an investment. Proper utilization of space is an important source of cost reduction, particularly when an enterprise is expanding and needs an increased working area. Furthermore, a proper layout reduces wasted movement, time and effort.
Inadequate materials handling Raw materials, parts and finished products are invariably being moved from one place to another throughout a production operation. The use of the most appropriate handling equipment for the purpose can save time and effort. Frequent stoppages as production changes from one product to another The proper planning and control of production operations can ensure that one production batch or order follows immediately on another so that idle time of machinery, equipment or labour is eliminated or minimized.
Ineffective method of work A sequence of operations may be well planned but each or some of them done in a cumbersome manner. By examining the way a certain operation is carried out and devising a better method, ineffective time can be reduced. Poor planning of inventory In every operation, raw material is usually ordered and stocked ahead of time and at every stage of the operation an inventory of so-called "materials-in-progress" or semi-finished products and various parts are temporarily stocked waiting to be processed.
These various inventories represent a tied-up investment. A proper inventory control system when installed can minimize such an idle investment while ensuring that the operators do not run out of the material needed. Frequent breakdown of machines and equipment Poor maintenance results in machinery and equipment that are often out of action, and idle time ensues while waiting for repairs.
Installing a preventive maintenance system and mounting maintenance campaigns would ensure the smooth functioning of machinery and equipment.
Work content resulting mainly from the contribution of human resources Workers in an enterprise can influence the time of operations voluntarily or involuntarily as follows: Absenteeism and lateness If management fails to provide a safe and satisfying work climate, workers could respond by absenteeism, lateness or deliberately working slowly.
Poor workmanship If workers are improperly trained, the resulting poor workmanship can mean that the job has to be done again. Losses may also occur because of wasted material. Accidents and occupational hazards If management fails to provide a safe and healthy place to work, accidents or occupational illnesses can occur, with resulting effects on morale and increased absenteeism.
The impact of all the factors mentioned above under headings A to C is shown in figure 3. If these factors can be eliminated an ideal situation which, of course, never occurs in real life , as shown in figure 4, the minimum time and cost for the production of a given output and hence the maximum productivity is achieved.
It can therefore be seen that the work study specialist has to keep all these in mind when examining an operation and trying to develop an improved method. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Total Quality Management 4e.
Business Correspondence and Report Writing. Mikell P. The Toyota Way. The Goal - Special Edition. Eliyahu M. Quantitative Aptitude for Competitive Examinations. R S Aggarwal. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Introduction to Work Study. Industrial Engineering and Production Management.
To get the free app, enter mobile phone number. See all free Kindle reading apps. Tell the Publisher! I'd like to read this book on Kindle Don't have a Kindle? Product details Paperback: Managers of outstanding abilitygeniuseshave always been able to make notable advances.
However capable he may be. A "stafi" appointee. It is no use relying on the word of operators or foremen. The factory manager or shop foreman. Work study. The study of the behaviour of plant divorced from the operator is almost entirely a technical problem. This means that work study must always be the responsibility of someone who is able to undertake it full time. The prime value of work study lies in the fact that by carrying out its systematic procedures quite ordinary men can achieve results as good as or better than the less systematic genius was able to achieve in the past.
Systematic inves- tigation takes time. Unless all the facts are known it is impossible to be sure that any altera- tions in procedure which are made are based on accurate information and will be fully effective.
It is therefore necessary. Only by continuous study at the workplace or in the area where the activity is taking place can the facts be obtained. There is nothing new about the investigation and improvement of operations in the workshop or elsewhere. That is its strength as a "tool" of investigation and improve- ment. There are not nearly enough to go round. Work study succeeds because it is systematic both in investigation of the prob- lem being considered and in the development of its solution.
Unfortunately there are as few geniuses in industry as elsewhere. This means that it is almost always impossible for him to obtain all the facts on what is happening in the course of that activity. Pilot plant ment of existing ones Capital investment 2.
Development of new Basic research High basic process or Applied research fundamental improve. Reduce the work Product research Not high conteflt of the Product development corn- product Quality management pared Method study with Value analysis 1 and 2 4. Reduce ineffective Work measurement Low time whether Marketing policy due to management Standardisation or to workers Product development Production planning and control Material control Planned maintenance Personnel policy Improved working conditions Operator training Incentive schemes Install more modern Purchase High or higher-capacity Process research plant or equipment or modernise existing plant 3.
Reduce the work Process research Low content of the Pilot plant Better process Process planning management Method study Operator training Value analysis 5. Utilisation of plant C. Incentive schemes Labour cost control D. Planning and control B. Should precede for ease of production action under those heads Immediate Limited. Managers and foremen have generally failed to achieve the saving and im- provements which can be effected by work study because they have been unable to There is nothing like it for "show- ing up" people.
This makes it an excellent weapon for starting an attack on ineffi- ciency in any organisation. This ensures that no factor affecting the efficiency of an operation is overlooked. For example. It is one of the most penetrating tools of investigation available to manage- ment. The savings resulting from properly applied work study start at once and continue as long as the operation continues in the improved form. It is systematic. This points at once to a failure of material control or a failure on the part of the works engineer to carry out proper maintenance procedures.
This points to bad production planning or a marketing policy which requires looking into. Work Study It is a means of raising the productive efficiency productivity of a factory or operating unit by the reorganisation of work. Nobody likes being shown up. It is the most accurate means yet evolved of setting standards of perform- ance. Work study acts like a surgeon's knife. It is a "tool" which can be applied everywhere.
This last point is worth further discussion. Because work study is systematic. It can be used with success wherever manual work is done or plant is operated. Glossary of Terms in Work Study. To achieve really important results it must be applied continuously. It is not enough for work study to be systematic.
Method study is concerned with the reduction of the work content of a job or operation. Work Study apply themselves continuouslr to such things. What are these two techniques and what is their relationship to one another? Method study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work.
Although method study should precede the use of work measurement when time standards for output are being set. The relationship of method study to work measure- ment is shown simply in figure 7. The savings achieved on individual jobs.
The full effect is felt in an organisation only when work study is applied everywhere. As will be seen from later chapters of this book. It is no use the work study man doing a good job and then sitting back and congratulating himself. For the present we must consider the basic procedure of work study which applies These techniques will be dealt with in detail in the chapters devoted to them.
There is no short cut. Step 4 is part of method study practice. Develop the most economic method taking into account all the circum- stances.
Examine Develop. Steps 1. Record from direct observation everything that happens. They are- Select the job or process to be studied. Install the new method as agreed standard practice with the time allowed. This procedure is fundamental to the whole of work study. These eight steps will all be discussed in detail in the chapters devoted to method study and work measurement.
Work Study to every study. Maintain the new standard practice by proper control procedures. Examine the recorded facts critically and challenge everything that is done. Measure the quantity of work involved in the method selected and cal- culate a standard time for doing it. The sequenceSelect. Define the new method and the related time so that it can always be identified.
Before doing so. Install and Maintain should be learnt by heart. He fears the unknown. Work study is not a substitute for good management and never can be. The man at the bottom of the ladder. It is one of the "tools" in the manager's tool kit. His feeling of security is threatened. Any technique which has such far-reaching effects must obviously be handled with great care and tact. The latter are usually found to be bad planning. Applying work study in one shop can start a chain-reaction of investigation and improvement which will spread in all directions throughout the organisation: Of course.
The skilled worker may be made to feel a novice when he finds that his methods. Since members of the management and supervisory staffs are employed to do these things.
Because a well-conducted work study analysis is ruthlessly systematic. Nobody likes to be made to feel that he has failed. Often they have years of experience and great practical know! By itself it will not make bad industrial relations good.
If the conditions should change. Not only this. If work study is to contribute seriously to the improvement of productivity. This has been the experience of the I. Man- agers. In order to eliminate this waste the causes of it must be looked for. They are certainly not less clever than work study specialists. If they have failed to obtain the most from the resources at their disposal it is generally because they have not been trained in.
The Human Factor one of his tools to produce certain results on a piece of wood. At first sight this result of a work study investigation may seem unfair.
He loses his self-confidence and begins to ask himself whether he may not be replaced. If it is not made clear. The first group of people to whom the purpose and techniques of work study must be explained is therefore the management group.
If the application of work study in an enterprise is to succeed it must have the understanding and the backing of the management at all levels. If the top management. If the work study man then comes into conflict with them. Do not forget that in any organisation people lower down tend to take their attitudes from the man at the top.
The Human Factor This must be made clear to everybody from the very beginning. In this way over 1. Most work study schools and technical colleges and national work study organisations run short courses for the managers of companies who are sending staff to be trained as specialists.
It is the usual practice in most countries to run short "apprecia- tion" courses for top management before starting to apply work study. They should apply for advice and assistance to their national productivity centres.
Running even the simplest and shortest course in work study is not easy. Here it is necessary to giv. Where these are not available the work study specialist himself may have to persuade his managing director to let him organise one. It is important that the firm's work study staff should take an active part in the course.
It is far worse for the work study man to make him- self look silly through bad lecturing and failing to answer questions satisfactorily than for him to do nothing 1 A sample two-day course for directors and top managers is given in Appendix 2. In Imperial Chemical Industries. The sources from which foremen and supervisors are recruited differ widely in different parts of the world.
If it is evident that the foreman thinks that "this work study stuff is nonsense". They must be won over if he is to obtain good results from his work. Unless this is done the foreman is likely to be difficult. The Human Factor If a course for management is to be run. In Western Europe. The foremen and their assistants represent management to the worker on the floor of the shop. The mere fact that some of his responsibilities have been taken away from him is likely to make him feel that his status has been reduced.
Not only will this show everyone that he has the support of top management. Before the work study man starts work in the shop. No one likes to think he has "lost face". He is the person most deeply affected by work study. The work for which he may have been responsible for years is being challenged. In most firms where specialists have not been used. Here again the national productivity centres may be able to help. If disputes arise or the workers are upset he is the first person who will be called upon to clear matters up.
Generally speaking. In the United States. This means that many foremen are middle-aged before they reach their positions and may be set in their ways. It is often impossible to send foremen on courses before the introduction of work study into an organisation. Since foremen are nearer to the practical side of the job than the management. For this reason foremen in many Asian countries tend to be young and often graduates. In countries where a high percentage of workmen are illiterate it is considered essential that the foreman should be well educated.
This course. Foremen should know enough to be able to help in the selection of jobs to be studied and to understand the factors involved should disputes arise over methods or time standards. The trainees should be given opportunities of making one or two simple method studies and of using stopwatches. This means that they should be acquainted with the principal techniques of method study and work measurement and the particular problems and situations in which they should be applied.
The value to the work study man of a foreman who understands and is enthusiastic about what he is trying to do cannot be overemphasised. Because they have practised their trades or crafts for many years they find it difficult to believe that they have anything to learn from someone who has not spent a very long time in the same trade. He is a powerful ally. The two other courses in the basic syllabus of T.
Whatever his origin and background the foreman may well resent the intro- duction of a work study man into his department unless he has had some training to prepare him for it. As we have already seen.
An excellent introduction to the general idea of methods improvement. The Human Factor workmanship.
Job relations introduces the idea of handling people with tact and understanding instead of trying to impose one's The work study man should never allow himself to express opinions to a worker which may be interpreted as critical of the foreman however much he may feel like it! The only exception to this is in matters connected with methods improvements where the worker has been ordered by the foreman to carry out the instructions of the work study man. The work study man should seek the foreman's advice in the selection of jobs to be studied and in all technical matters connected with the process even if he knows a great deal about the process.
This list of "Do's" and "Don't's" may look frightening but is mainly com- mon sense and good manners. The following rules must be observed: The work study man must never give a direct order to a worker. All instructions must be given through the foreman.. Workers asking questions calling for decisions outside the technical field of work study should a1way be referred to their foreman.
At the start of every investigation the work study man should be intro- duced to the workers concerned by the foreman. Job instruction is an elementary course on how to teach people to do their jobs..
The work study man should never try to start on his own. The work study man must not allow the workers to "play him off" against the foreman or to use him to get decisions altered which they consider harsh. The workers in any shop can only have one boss their foremanand everything must be done to uphold his authority.
The job relations and job instruction courses may be given in parallel with this. A great deal of space has been given to the relations between the work study man and the foreman because it is the most difficult of all the relationships. Both courses can be of great value to supervisors and work study men alike in their work of changing attitudes and retraining operatives in improved methods of working If the worker later quotes to the foreman ".
The Human Factor will by virtue of one's superior position. Proper instruction in all these matters can greatly ease the introduction of work study. Work- ers are usually glad to be rid of interruptions so that they can get on with their jobs. There are several reasons why this should be so. Here is a sort of "boss" he had never imagined existed. There are. The impact on the worker is often very great. One of the best methods of ensuring that this is so is to provide both parties with the proper training.
If the relationship is already a bad one almost anything will strain it. Little wonder if in quite a short time the worker starts going to the work study man for decisions and help. It is probably true to say that the arrival of a work study specialist usually a consultant in a shop is the first time that many workers have ever seen a well educated man working on the shop floor among them.
This situation is very familiar to all consultants and is one which they have to take great pains to avoid. In most of the western countries. Work study improves the flow of work and the supply of material. The Human Factor must be good. It can be largely avoided if the shop supervision has received at least the training already suggested. If work study is properly applied and workers and their representatives are kept fully informed of all that is being done.
In point of fact. This is a real problem which must be faced and discussed by the management and the unions so that a proper policy can be arrived at. It is possible. If changes are demanded of themeven if they are shown how they will increase productivity and im- prove qualitythey will tend to resist those changes. In many cases it may actually pay to increase the number of workers By doing this.
This is partly because human beings naturally dislike change unless they make the change themselves. The Human Factor prove impossible to get some workers to change to new methods.
If they have such training at the same times as represen- tatives of management they will see that nothing is being concealed. The work study man. In most undertakings in developing countriesand even in indus- trially advanced onesgreat improvements in productivity can generally be effected through the application of work study to improve plant utilisation and operation.
There is often a fear that redundancy may arise out of the results of work study. Skilled workers who have been at their trades for many years believe them- selves masters of their crafts. Work study honestly applied has nothing to hide.
In courses run by the I.
Here the position which the work study man takes up and the way in which he goes about it is extremely important. Many workers resent being timed. Nothing breeds suspicion like attempts to hide what is being done. It is not usually possible or even necessary to give instruction in work study to individual workers. If the methods they use and their output are reasonably satisfactory they will have to be left alone.
He must take care to allow the worker to become accustomed to his presence before attempting to record times. This is especially true where wages are low.
He remains a member of his normal working group throughout the period of his secondment to the work study team. It is important to note that. If the workers' nominee is to take his part as a member of the study team and understand fully all that goes on. What is the use of halving the time a worker takes to do a certain job by well-applied method study and giving him output standards set by work measurement if he is constantly being held up by lack of materials or machine breakdowns due to bad planning by the management?
An excellent practice. The workers' nominee is given the same basic training as the regular work study men receive. The Human Factor serving a given piece of plant if. He thus remains a nominee of the workers through- out. This requirement.
The importance of studying the productivity of all the resources of the enterprise and not confining the application of work study to the productivity of labour alone cannot be overemphasised. The ideal man for the job is likely to be found very rarely. Since he receives neither additional pay nor advancement he cannot be suspected of having been "bought" by the management.
It is essential. He must be really keen on his job. Personal Qualities. The following are essential qualities: Sincerity and honesty. It is unlikely that anyone who has not had such an education will be able fully to benefit from a full work study train- ing course. The Human Factor Education. It is desirable that candidates for posts as work study specialists should have had practical experience in the industries in which they will be working. Practical Experience. It is. The type of man who is good at this is not always so good at human relations.
Practical experience will also command respect from foremen and workers. The work study man must be sincere and he must be honest. Having worked at a manual job will enable them to understand what it means to do a day's work under the conditions in which the ordinary workers with whom they will be dealing have to work.
The minimum standard of education for anyone who is to take charge of work study application in an enterprise is a good secondary education with matriculation or the equivalent school-leaving examination. This experience should include a period of actual work at one or more of the processes of the industry.
The exception is the technical graduate who has served an apprenticeship in the engineering industry. Anyone who is going to undertake improvements in methods should have an inventive turn of mind. The work study man must be able to stand up to top management. Good appearance. People with these qualities are not easy to find. It will be seen from these requirements that the results of work study. He must be neat and tidy and look efficient. He must be able to get along with people at all levels.
This can only come with good training and experience of applying work study successfully. This will inspire confidence in him among the people with whom he has to work. To get along with people it is necessary to be interested in them and able to see their points of view.
Work study is an excellent training for young men destined for higher management. Far too often this aspect of the training of work study men is neglected. The Human Factor Interest in and sympathy with people. In fact. Tact in dealing with people comes from understanding people and not wishing to hurt their feelings by unkind or thoughtless words. Having described the background against which work study is to be applied.
Without tact no work study man is going to get very far. In most work study courses more time should be given to the human side of applying work study. These personal qualities. It must be remembered that the general working conditions in a shop or factory affect everyone working there. Method study and work measurement applied to a single operation may bring about a per cent.
This was emphasised by the first I. After all. GENERAL The first thing to do in attempting to improve methods of work in a factory or elsewhere is to ensure that the conditions under which the workers have to perform their tasks are such that they can do so without strain. It was the experience of this mission that productivity could often be increased simply by improving the working conditions. Often quite small improvements can produce marked increases in productivity.
The extent to which this affects the productivity of the shop as a whole depends on the number of operators working on similar jobs and how long Not only is time lost in the manner described but an excessive amount of bad work is caused which means waste of material and loss of output.
Bad working conditions were listed among the main causes of ineffective time due to short- comings of the management. Detailed discussion of the siting of factories and of their construction is out of place here. The question of factory layout. Improved lighting. We are concerned here primarily with the condi- tions which surround the worker as he does his job.: Unhealthy and unhappy workers. Spitting is especially dangerous to health. It can take a lot of work study to produce a 5 per cent. Working Conditions the job lasts.
Where it 1 That of Imperial Chemical Industries. Accumulations of dirt should be removed daily from all work- rooms. Regulation Notices expressly forbidding spitting on the floor. In terms of increased productivity the "steam shovel" of improved working conditions may be worth many "spoonfuls" of detailed method study. The former head of one of the largest work study departments in the world' said on many occasions: It is essential to health that all factory shops and rooms should be kept in a sanitary condition.
Physical working conditions depend on many factors: In taking this view we have not lost sight of the fact that he is a human being. In such situations it is imperative to enforce strict discipline to ensure that only designated areas are used for latrines and sanitary purposes. Cleanliness has already been dealt with. Receptacles for waste and refuse should be so constructed that they cannot leak and can be con- veniently and thoroughly cleaned. Model Code already referred to.
Details of minimum requirements are to be found in the I. If gangways are not kept clear of stacks of material and other obstructions. The need for proper sanitary accommodation should not have to be stressed and will not be dealt with here. Working Conditions is necessary to provide spittoons they should be sufficient in number. Sweepings and waste should be removed. Particular care must be taken to rid workrooms and shops of rats.: During intensive studies on manual earth-moving operations carried out on a large dam site in India it was found that most of the workers.
This is particularly important in areas where the quality of the water from piped supplies is suspect and on open worksites where workers may otherwise be tempted to refresh themselves from pools and streams liable to pollution. In districts where malaria is endemic all workplaces should. Tidiness in the workshop is an aid to productivity as well as a means of reducing accidents. Without it eye damage will occur. Keeping the amount of material in the shops to a minimum is thus an important way of reducing costs and increasing productivity.
Bureau of Labor Standards: Industrial Lighting: It is essential to the health. In the same way tools. Nothing should be allowed to project over these lines into the gangways.
In shops working on batch production complete batches of work in progress can be mislaid for hours if the floor is littered. Very large sums of money which could more profitably be used to finance the day-to-day working of the firm in place of bank loans or other forms of credit are often tied up in material.
Storage areas should be similarly marked off. Many smaller firms could make useful savings by following suit. It is common sense to suppose that. Working Conditions to and from workplaces or machines.
On concrete or wooden floors they should be marked with painted lines at least 5 cm 2 in.. The accumulations of odd lengths of raw materials.
Gangways on earth floors may be marked by pegs with white. It is a rule of method studyand of materials handlingthat nothing should be put on the floor of the shop unless absolutely necessary. Gangways must be kept clear. Long Periods of Time Such as: Extra-fine Assembly. Obtained with a combination of general lighting plus specialised supplementary lighting.
Ordinary Bench Work and Assembly. Fine Assembly. Poor Contrasts. High-Speed Work. Finest Detail. Bulletin No. Machine Shop Work.