3 Axis CNC Machine - MDF Plans and Cut List. Copyright Patrick If there is an inquiry to a hole size, or a position, refer to another part of the drawing. Finally, we need a program to control the machine on the whole and a ton of Three awesome CNC machines in one that I'll build myself!! . https://thingiverse- anesi.info Building Your Own CNC Milling Machine - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Build Your Own. CNC Machine. SIMPLE AND EASY-TO-READ. INSTRUCTIONS FOR BUILDING YOUR. VERY OWN, FULLY-FUNCTIONAL,. AUTOMATED. WHY CNC? Pros. · Can make complex parts. · Easy to manufacture a number of identical parts. · Machining fast compared to manual. What is a CNC Machine? What is a DIY Desktop CNC Machine? Building Your DIY Desktop CNC Machine for instructions on assembly of your.
Click the 'hand' in the top left and use it to drag the grid to get your 0,0 axis to show up. Worksurface The work surface is the place you will clamp your pieces of material on. Safiya Pathan. I just used the 4 for the motor, 2 for power, and three for arduino. Use a straight pin or paper clip to release it so that you can disassemble the CD rom.
Most components from eBay for cheap: I think that is stellar to ultimately have my very own plotter, 3D printer and laser engraver.
These Instructables I referenced A Lot. They helped quite a bit! I encourage you to check them out, too. Base Electronic: Arduino UNO, easy drivers x3 , prototyping breadboard, male to male jumper wires, various other wires for various soldering,.
I will not show this here, but if you wanted 4 DC motor to act as a router like 18V , chuck, routing bits, wires.
Suggested tools: Since everyone's situation will be different I am just going over what you will see me work with in this instructable:. Digging for some specs showed that the After looking locally, many eWaste recycling places or even some universities will sell you their stuff dirt cheap I mean, they are going to recycle it anyways, right?!
Makes less work for them and haggling is awesome to keep your wallet tight. My local university had tons of PCs, printers and scanners all waiting to be disassembled for the recycle bins. I read from ianmcmill's frankenlaser instructable that you want to look for older printers and newer scanners for the better stepper motors. They made a great instructable and you can check it out for reference.
Since everyone may have different electronics, I won't spend a lot of time talking about the tear down. You can refer to my pictures to see what I wound up with. Power Supply: Open the computer tower, disconnect the plugs from the motherboard, unscrew and remove the whole power supply. You need to have the carriage from the printer with the belt and stepper attached. That nice square printer carriage didn't have a stepper attached to the drive belt, it was a straight DC motor so I got one from an Epson printer and just placed the drive gear from the DC motor on there, secured it with some screws and it does the job.
This, and the scanner tear down are pretty straightforward. The bed is what you need. The stepper motor should be visible on the bed. Keep it attached to the belt or any other rods it is attached to. CD rom: All you want is the stepper motor assembly with rails and all. Sometimes the face where you put a disc won't eject.
Use a straight pin or paper clip to release it so that you can disassemble the CD rom. Be careful when removing the tiny pieces from the laser assembly.
You do not want to damage those delicate LDs. If it is compatible, Use that long printer USB cable to replace the shorter cable that comes with the arduino. I tried to take apart one of those old Brother typewriters from the 90's to get the printer carriage from that I do not recommend it unless you have a heavy duty grinding wheel and not just a Dremel. That thing has wierd angles that makes it hard to mount on the scanner. That is kind of what Ianmcmill did with the Frankenstein laser.
Now may be a good point to check to see if the motors you worked so hard for will run properly with the software and Arduino. You would not want to work hours connecting the pieces together just to find out that that printer stepper you got is why the thing was thrown away in the first place. To do that, we will now get the software for your computer and then connect all the wires to test it with GRBL controller.
This is what I do in the video. So after all that, I just found that I wasted a good bit of time adapting the drill holes and whatnot to a bunk piece of equipment What I do, I do with Windows. I am not sure how the following differs from a MAC or Lenux!
Arduino 1. You could simply do this from your devices folder on your computer. GRBL Hex file 0. This is like a Notepad.
GRBL Controller 3. It's that simple. If you want a nice Gcode cheat sheet for some commands, check out this link:. The goal, connect: Solder on the pins that the easy drivers come with. I just used the 4 for the motor, 2 for power, and three for arduino.
I made one side of the bread board 5V and the other 12V. The two share a common ground. See pic 3 for the CPU power supply wire color code. The 3 axes share a ground on the breadboard that way only one common wire connects to the Arduino GND. If you are using a computer power supply like me, you will have to jump the green wire to a ground black wire pic 4. Jumping the green and black will trick the supply to think it is properly connected as a stand alone.
I believe I used 18AWG wire. Let's say your stepper motor doesn't just have 4 connections and has 5 or 6. Well my printer stepper has 6 wires and this puzzled me. The way to go is find a spare LED.
Connect the LED's two wires and manually twist the motor. If it lights up, that is the pair. Now lets say the very first and second wire light up and then you go to test one and three and it lights up, too Well the brighter of the two combinations is what you want.
Then do the same with the remaining wires. I found that a five wire was the outer two more often than not. The easydriver has a potentiometer on it pic 5 to adjust the current going to the stepper motor and if you can find the specs for your specific stepper to know the current rating you can adjust it properly. That way your motors don't overheat and "scream. I could not find my specs for my motors however a common 0.
So far so good. I also added some heat sinks to the IC of the Easydrivers, though, just in case. Can't be too careful. Attach your heat sinks to the IC on the easy driver, if you bought some, and allow them to cure.
Jog each of the motors axes to make sure they move by hitting the arrow either up or down left or right for X axis. If they move, that is awesome and go to the next step. If not, check your connections or your pin out on the Arduino esp. Like I alluded to earlier, the CD rom gave me the biggest headache. Connecting, and by that I mean soldering, the four wires to jump to the breadboard is so tight that I kept getting two solder joints to fuse together effectively making the two points one.
This makes the motor very unhappy and when you test it with GRBL, it will just jiggle, and not in a good way. You go to jog your motor and get very frustrated that it doesn't work. If you want to get serious with soldering or you already are, get a good non cheapy soldering iron with a fine tip, and some flux, especially if you are working with small gauge wire.
But when I figured out that was all it was and that the motor actually worked properly, boy did I get a good boost in moral and a sense of accomplishment. I eventually soldered pins to the end of my wire that I connected to the motor which helped as well. Now that you have the guts of the electronics tested and working properly, we need to "connect" all the axes together.
This may take the longest in the project. Depending on the parts you use will determine your coarse of action. I am just showing my perspective. I disconnected all the wires for ease of attachment. I used some wood paneling I had laying around and did a rough sketch of the scanner assembly that the stepper was attached to. I cut it to size and that way I could use some screws to attach the printer carriage to the scanner. Next we need to connect the Z axis, the CD rom, to the X axis.
The panel that the ink cartridge rested in makes a great support for this. I had to drill some holes in the sides of it and then cut some of the old CD rom housing to make L brackets.
Can you tell I really didn't want to go to the hardware store for this? If you have some lying around, better on you. Or if you devise a better way to attach it, post a comment.
There were a couple holes for screws already on the CD rom platter that I used and measured the holes to be drilled on my "L brackets. I then used two more standoffs on where the lasers were housed to attach our medium. With everything reattached it is time to make sure that when you tell GRBL Controller to move 10 mm, it does precisely that.
Groover's instructable says that he uses It works just fine.
That will change the Z axis, in that example. These are good starting points. If you need to adjust further to make it more precise and you probably will , take what you calculated and divide by what you saw and multiply by that number.
Let's say you calculated the Y axis to mm but it actually moves 94mm. Your machine is off by 6mm. I had to do this for my Y scanner because I believe there may be some gear linkage that threw the ratio off. Now when I say to move 10mm it does.
You could also try going here: You probably want to do a cool design for your test, huh?! So did I, but had no idea how to use Inkscape. I will try and bridge that gap with a very basic tutorial which simply gets you to an image. There are many great videos on YouTube that can help further your knowledge after this.
So go ahead and find an image you like.
I hear if you google an image, try to get one from the "transparent" tab. It would make it easier to convert to bitmap. My version of Inkscape already came with the gcode tool plug-in but if you have trouble getting it let me know I will make an update.
Click Document Properties and choose your boundaries in Custom Size for your bed. I like millimeters. Highlight the boundary layer and on the left tool bar, Click Draw Bezier Curve it looks like a ink pen with a curved line. You should see dashed lines on your boundary box now. You may also have to click the box for Invert Image. You should now have a good outline of your image and also a Red box with an X. This is the original image and You Should Delete It.
In the Preferences tab you want to make sure it is in your preferred units mine was mm , then set your Z height to something safe and something your machine is capable of like 2 mm so it doesn't run into your completed work, and in Directory, save whatever folder or whatever you want it to.
For example, with an ink pen, I keep it at 1. If your had a router bit, you would want it to plunge into the wood or plastic, etc to cut out your object.
Set it for that medium then. A pop up will say something like, 'Cutting tool not defined. In the Boundary layer it will spit out a path box. Go to your folder you saved to and look for your image title. Some things to look for: Your gcode should say something at the top about a cutting tool and the next line should be a G0 or G00 followed by a Z number i.
That should be what safety height you set above the work. Make sure it is properly positive or negative based on your CNC. Again, Make Sure it is properly pos or neg depending on your machine.
My machine's Z raises up by going more negative so I had to double check this. And Again, I had to mirror my image. Just be sure you proofread your Gcode. So you may want to choose "Round all values to 4 digits" in the 'Preferences' tab. At this point, you probably just want to test this contraption and move on. This is why my pen plotter is quite crude, but for the sake of progress, it worked The CNC had no idea it was trying to move beyond it's capability.
This threw it out of bounds again. Perhaps there was a command in the gcode to restart the file?? I wanted to see what the plotter was doing so I knew what to do to proceed. To accomplish this, I manually drew in the proper boundaries mind you a rectangle and a small circle. When it plotted them I knew it was a mirror image of what was actually shown in Inkscape. I will show you how to remove your laser carefully, but again, look for an update to go further with a laser on this CNC. Snip the ribbon cable off pic 7 and secured it to a vise pic 9 or something robust.
You do not want to crush the LD as it is very delicate. My front panel was, however, removed by snapping it when I initially secured it to the vise.
This was a happy accident, so please be careful pic 10!! Remove the back part of the heat sink by utilizing a hack saw and carefully running it along the top and then swapping to the bottom. I did that back and forth little by little until I was able to use my hands to jimmy it apart pic My laser operates in the Visible Spectrum that we humans can physically see at nm which is red.
Please take that to heart and use special laser glasses that will filter out this wavelength. They are pricey but you only have one set of eyes!
So spend some moneys to protect them. I saved this laser to add to the CNC as another attachment for a later project. I will take some of the steps from gigafide's instructable Which rocks, btw. Check it out and use a 3D printing pen as our medium.
He has a solid method to disassemble the pen and figure out how to get yours to work with the arduino. I will briefly summarize and add some pointers:. However, I did break a tab and it still snaps back on no problem. Figure out the two of four solder leads of the forward extrusion button that will power up the pen using the arduino.
Touch two leads to each end of a 1K ohm resistor to figure out which ones will start the extruder. Solder the two leads with wires being careful not to use a lot of solder. I drilled a hole in the back case to facilitate getting the wires out. I should have made my hole closer to the power jack end honestly.
I had to use a longer length of my red wire because I had to maneuver it around the filament tube and out the hole. The first time I was going to put everything back together my solder joint came undone, even with hot glue holding it down due to the stress of its position.
The second attempt, I prebent the wire in a U shape, soldered and then hot glued it before getting it out the hole. This worked out very well. Solder pins or a male jumper pin to the pen's wires for ease of use with the breadboard unless you plan on making your own circuit board. Test the wire of the pen with the resistor while it is powered up to make sure the extruder motor still runs properly. I followed the steps of gigafied's arduino switch circuit and it played out very well.
I do not recall the instructable stating what kind of transistor he used but I wound up using a 2NA NPN transistor and a K Ohm resistor in the end.
The plan is to find a resistor that has a resistance high enough so it will not allow ground to power the pen when you Don't want it to but low enough so when current is applied, the pen will power on when you Do want it to. Connect one of the 3D pen's wires to the emitter E and the other to the collector C it doesn't matter which.
Connect the arduino GND to C on the transistor and a resistor on connection to the base B pin of the transistor.
The other end of the resistor will be connected to GND on the arduino. Pic 1 Start with a 1K ohm resistor. We already saw from the previous step that when connected to ground, a 1K ohm resistor powers the pen. This is just a reference point.
Now that you have the resistor that will keep the pen off when connected to ground, you need to see which one will allow it to turn on when current flows. So that means if you have too high resistance blocking current when powered up normally, then the pen will not run. Take the wire connected to the resistor from Ground and connect it to the 5V pin on the arduino.
If the pen does not turn on, the resistance is too high. Move to a lower resistor, i. You want to take big jumps finding the ground resistance and then when the arduino is powered up lower it gradually between those levels.
Hence, why in the example we went from 10K to K ground, big jump , then from K to 47K to 22K current applied, smaller jumps but higher than the 10K ohm value.
When I read gigafied's instructable, I thought, "yeah I got it," but when I actually did it, it confused me a little. I hope between that and mine that I explained it well enough. Also, hopefully the pics help. Now that we have the pen communicating with the arduino and we loaded the arduino with GRBL in the software step we need to make sure everything is groovy when the GRBL Controller program communicates.
I had enough room on the end of my breadboard to stick the transistor switching circuit on and connect it to the arduino.
Open the COM port that the arduino is communicating with. Click the box that says "Spindle. You will notice in the big command window a M3 should pop up when on and M5 when off Uncheck the box to turn it off.
Manually type M3 in the command box and press Enter to turn the pen on, and M5 to turn the pen off. If not, don't fret. Neither did mine the first time. I did that and then used a relative crap load of hot glue between the pin, the exposed wire and the protective plastic to keep it stiff and robust so that I could connect and disconnect the pen a lot.
To get the pen on the Z axis and be as straight as possible was a tad more labor intensive than I originally thought. I had those two standoffs protruding from the Z bed to act as a guide. Then I predrilled some holes on two pieces of scrap wood. I hot glued the pen to the wood on one side first, then as the second piece was in the standoff, I straightened the pen as much as possible and hot glued the second side. The axis would move down no problem, kind of like how rolling a log down a hill is fine but pushing it up the hill, rough.
This trashed my first nozzle because with no up motion, all that plastic flooded the nozzle and solidified. More on that later. Plan accordingly pic 2. I also raised the bed 1 cm. Only 1 because any higher and the Y platter would run into it Pic 3 is the final hook up. Click the 'hand' in the top left and use it to drag the grid to get your 0,0 axis to show up. Click on the 'arrow' in the top left and click and drag to highlight the shape.
It should turn a red orange color. Change the name, if you like. Change it to whatever you want. I set mine to -1, this may not have been a good idea moving in increments of 0. I set mine to 0. They are the rate your pen extrudes and moves, resp. After my first nozzle clog, I set the 3D pen speed knob to its Slowest Setting!! Since the frame sits beneath the worksurface dust could fall down on the guiderails you want to keep them clean, more about it in step 5.
To prevent this, dust covers were made and mounted around the guiderails. A angular profile mounted with brass milled t-nuts onto the may tech frame and 2 2mm aluminium plates mounted in the milled pockets on the endplates. On both endplates bearing blocks are mounted for the spindle.
They were hand milled and lathed to the right tolerances. On the front endplate mounting slots for the stepper motor were milled All of the dimensions are documented in the technical drawings below.
Milled parts for dust covers 2. Linear guide rails; discussed in step 5 3. Maytech Aluminium 40x80mm extruded profile 4. Lots of T-slots for T-nuts. Mounting things to the frame is just peanuts Image Notes 1. Dustcovers mounted 2. Linear guiderails with the runner blocks slided on 3. The square structure assembled and mounted in the frame http: Dustcover File Downloads Endplate-frame.
PDF'] Framebeam mm. PDF'] Framebeam. The Gantry The gantry is the bridge between the x-axis guiderails and supports your milling motor above the workpiece. The higher you make it, the thicker the workpiece can be. There is however a disadvantage of high gantries. They work as levers on the guiderails and on the other hand the side plates tend to bend more easily by making them longer.
Most of the work I planned to do with the CNC involved milling aluminium parts. An average vise for the machine would be 60 mm high. Since the thickest blocks of aluminium easily available for me would be 60 mm high as well, I chose to space between the work surface and the piece of metal, which could hit the workpiece first, to be mm. This gave me a starting point for the side plates. Since I wanted the center of an end mill hovering over the center of the runnigblocks from the machines side view , the side plates had to be placed at an angle.
Solidworks helped me to convert all of the measurements into the final parts. Because of all the complex dimensions I decided to mill these parts on an industrial CNC mill, this also gave me the opportunity to round all of the corners would have been very hard to mill on a manual mill. The part which supports the y-axis guiderails is formed out of an 5mm thick U-profile.
It is mounted between the side plate with the help of two simple mounting blocks. On the inside the U-profile houses the y-axis spindle. Which is again supported by the same bearing blocks used for the x-axis. They are mounted on the outside of the side plates.
Beneath the main frame a plate was mounted on the underside of the Gantry's side plates, giving a mounting point for the x-axis spindle nut. All of the dimensions are provided in the drawings below. Sideplates of the gantry; they were CNC milled on an industrial machine.
Last movement The last movement is what I call the Stepermotorhousing for the z-axis plus the z-axis itself of course. It is constructed out of a frontplate mounted on the y-axis linear guiderails, 2 reinforcement plates, a motor mount and a backplate. On the front plate 2 linear guiderails were mounted for the z-axis onto which the Mountingplate for the milling motor was placed with the runner blocks.
The motor mount has the bearing for the z-axis spindle fitted into it. So I didn't use a bearing block for this spindle and is only supported on the top.
The spindle nut for the Z-axis was directly bolted on the mounting plate for the milling motor. The backplate provides a spot for the y-axis spindle nut to be mounted; it is mounted on the inside. All of the custom mechanics are now ready. The CNC is assembled with the guiderails, spindles and a lot of bolts ;- De drawings are again provided below.
Guide rails Since your endmills need to move in 3 directions, the machine guides them with its guide rails. The guide rails provides the machine its rigidity in all directions except the one it moves in. You want them to let the machine only move in the preferred direction. Any backlash in other directions results in inaccuracies in your workpieces. On my machine I wanted to use guideways supported on the full length of the rail, reducing the risk for deflections on the longer axes.
In my opinion some kitchen drawer slides are preferred above the hardened steel rods which are supported on the end yes!
Since you are constantly fighting the forces from the endmills against the material of the workpiece, a lot of support is recommended. I chose the most expensive option; profiled linear guide rails with runner blocks.
The are designed to receive forces in all directions. In the third picture you can see the looping bearing balls, they are positioned on both sides of the profile. All with a tangent 45 degree relative to each other, giving it the ability to handle high loads.
To get all guiderails perpendicular and parallel to each other they were all aligned with a dial indicator with a maximum difference of 0, mm. If you spent your time on this part, the machine will perform very well in accuracy! Spindles and pulleys The spindles translate the rotational movement from the stepper motors into a linear movement.
When building your machine, you can choose between three different version; leadscrews or ball screws, either in metric or Imperial configuration. The main difference between leadscrews and ball screws is the accuracy and friction. Leadscrews tend to have a lot more friction and are less precise than ball screws.
If your looking for a very accurate machine without any backlash, you should definitely consider ball screws. However, they are relatively expensive! I chose to use leadscrews with a special plastic drivenut which reduce friction and are approach a backlash free system. You can order the drive nuts here: Since the z-axis spindle is only supported on one and with a bearing, it is turned on only one side.
The pulleys are drilled to the turned shaft size in my case 8 mm and provided with a M4 setscrew perpendicular to the shafthole. The drawings below show the dimensions http: Worksurface The work surface is the place you will clamp your pieces of material on. On a lot of professional machine a T-slotted bed is used, giving you the option the use T-nuts and bolts to clamp your materials or vices. I chose to use a square piece of 18 mm birch-plywood on which a screw the materials and replace it when needed.
An affordable work surface! You could also use Mdf with anchor nuts and bolts. Try to avoid screws and nails in Mdf, it doesn't grip them as good as a plywood board. The work surface could be milled flat by the machine itself after you've completed it. Your first project: Electrical system The main components in the electrical system are: Safety first; a emergency stop ;- I chose to buy a complete set on Ebay with 3 Nema 23 stepper motors, 3 suitable drivers, a breakout board and a 36 V power supply.
You can of course also put together your own set. Since I could not wait to sartup the machine I temporarily mounted all the drivers and power supply on a open board.
The enclosure is in the making. The UBS-breakout boards on the market generally come with their own software. I chose to use the parallel printer port found on most older PC's. I do not intend to use a new computer between the dust. Since I had a lot of difficulties in finding a proper scheme with the needed components, I tried to make everything clear in the infographic above you can also download the PDF and zoom in on the different parts File Downloads Electric system.
The milling motor Since we want to remove material from the piece we clamp to the work surface, we need something that drives the cutting bits; i. The milling motor will spin the cutters at low or high speeds. From a simple Dremeltool to a High frequency Spindle of several kWatts. For our machine size a Kress spindle is very convenient to start with. If you want to improve your machine, a reliable Hf spindle will please you.
It all depents on the amount of money you can afford to spent on it. Try to find something with the ability to use different sized collets.
Step CNC software In the topic CNC software I'll discuss not only the program me that controls the machine, but also the software which produces code the machine will understand.