anesi.info Lifestyle CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND DETAILS FOR INTERIORS BASIC SKILLS PDF

Construction drawings and details for interiors basic skills pdf

Friday, March 29, 2019 admin Comments(0)

Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors Basic Skills - dokument [*.pdf] CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND DETAILS FOR INTERIORS: BASIC SKILLS W. anesi.info: Construction Drawings and Details for Construction drawings and details for interiors ebook pdf von rosemary kilmer w otie portofrei bei. Mar 4, View eBook Construction Drawings And Details For Interiors: Basic Skills By W. Otie Kilmer, Rosemary Kilmer [PDF EBOOK EPUB. KINDLE].


Author: VIRGINA PUTMAN
Language: English, Spanish, French
Country: Morocco
Genre: Personal Growth
Pages: 387
Published (Last): 29.03.2016
ISBN: 284-7-15474-609-1
ePub File Size: 19.31 MB
PDF File Size: 15.52 MB
Distribution: Free* [*Regsitration Required]
Downloads: 30764
Uploaded by: LISHA

The design process for architectural interiors involves a series of phases, each of which may call for drawings. At the outset, these may include programming. Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors: Basic Skills, 2nd Edition [ Rosemary Kilmer, W. Otie Kilmer] on anesi.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying. anesi.info 1/14/03 PM Page iii. CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS AND DETAILS FOR INTERIORS: BASIC SKILLS W. OTIE KILMER ROSEMARY KILMER.

Perspective Drawings A perspective drawings is a type of single-view drawing that is more realistic-looking than an oblique or axonometric drawing. The size of the tubular point is what determines the finished width. In many professional design firms, over 50 percent of a project fee payment from the client to the designer might be allo- cated to preparing construction drawings and the related specifica- tions. A special device will allow Figure Compasses are used to technical pen points to be used with the compass. SlideShare Explore Search You.

Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors: Basic Skills in eBooks File type: PDF File size: Basic Skills are great because they are so attention holding, I mean you know how people describe Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors: Basic Skills By W.

Otie Kilmer, Rosemary Kilmer good books by saying they cant stop reading them, well, I really could not stop reading. Rosemary Kilmer , W. Otie Kilmer. Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors has become a must-have guide for students of interior design.

It covers the essentials of traditional and computer-aided drafting with a uniquely design-oriented perspective. No other text provides this kind of attention to detail.

Inside, you'll find specialty drawings, a sensitivity to aesthetic concerns, and real-world guidance from leaders in the field of interior design.

Updated content is presented here in a highly visual format, making it easy to learn the basics of drawing for each phase of the design process. This new Third Edition includes access to a full suite of online resources. This revision also keeps pace with evolving construction standards and design conventions.

Two new chapters, 'Concept Development and the Design Process' and 'Structural Systems for Buildings,' along with expanded coverage of building information modeling BIM , address the latest design trends.

Special plasticized lead pencils were at one time commonly used with plastic films, but they are not as prevalent as they once were. These are discussed in the paragraph under leads in the next section.

Special ink is also available for drawing on plastic film. Both However, they can also be reproduced photostatically. Tracing pencil and ink lines are very clear and crisp on plastic films and paper is generally a natural, untreated translucent paper. It is used produce very clear, clean prints. Plastic films are sold in rolls and primarily for exploratory ideas and sketches. It is commonly sold standard sheet sizes.

Pencils, Leads, and Pens Vellum is a translucent tracing paper that is treated to improve Pencils are one of the most basic and primary drawing tools of the strength, surface texture, and transparency. Vellums also have a professional designer. There are three basic types of pencils avail- high rag content that gives them strength so they can withstand able to a designer for producing quality drawings Figure The erasing. Vellum is sold in rolls or standard sheet sizes and can be selection is a matter of preference and the particular level of per- used for hand or computer drafting.

Standard sheet sizes for archi- formance needed by the user. Wood-Cased Pencil Plastic Films The oldest manufactured pencil is of wood with a lead encased Plastic drafting films are tough, translucent, polyester sheets. Their inside. However, the sharpen- are the wood-cased pencil, the er only cuts the wood and does not touch the lead. If a wedge point is desired, rubbing the lead on sandpaper can form it. Wood-cased pencils come in a variety of different lead weights, ranging from 9H extremely hard to 6B extremely soft.

These leads are explained later in this chapter. Traditional Leadholder This type of mechanical pencil is made of metal or plastic, with special individual leads inserted in a permanent holder. Different lead weights may be inserted to produce a variety of sharp line weights. Pencil leads are graded from 9H hard to F firm to 6B black.

Fine-Line Mechanical Pencil These leads are used for sketching, architectural line work, lettering and general purposes. This type of mechanical pencil does not require sharpening and is loaded with multiple leads of the same diameter and hardness.

The pencil generally is made to hold 0. The size of the lead determines the line width. This type of Soft leads are used for sketching, rendering, and graphical accents. When in doubt, try a sample or test first. Like the traditional leadholder, the mechanical pencil offers the convenience of a steady supply of lead, as the leads are inserted in the bottom of the holder and pushed out the tip by pressing a button on the end of the Metric widths range from.

Leads used on tracing paper and drafting paper are composed of graphite. Leads range in grades from 9H extremely hard to 6B extremely soft. See Table The softer the lead, the darker the image or line it will produce. For most drafting work, where clean, crisp lines are necessary, H and 2H leads are used. For sketching, softer leads are better, such as F and HB. Very soft leads, standard widths range from to 6.

For a starter pen set, a good range of point sizes would be 3x0. Technical pens that produce the same line widths are also available with felt tips. These are less costly, however their felt tips tend to wear out faster than the metal tips. For light, preliminary layout work, 3H and 4H leads are best. Also, the harder the drawing surface, the softer the lead will feel.

If you are in high humidity conditions, the and will produce excellent reproductions. When using technical pens, remember to keep points screwed in securely to prevent the ink from clogging. Always replace the cap firmly after each use to apparent hardness of the lead tends to increase. As noted before, there are also special plastic-leaded pencils available for drawing on plastic drafting film.

These plastic leads Figure Technical fountain pens and ink refill. They are water-resistant and bond well to the plastic film.

A vinyl eraser is also available for use with these special leads. Pens Some designers prefer ink and use a technical fountain pen Figure , as it is capable of precise line width. It can be used for both freehand and drafted ink drawings.

Details construction basic interiors skills pdf drawings and for

As with drafting pencils, pens are available in a variety of forms and price ranges. However, most technical drawing pens consist of a tubular point, which has an ink-flow-regulating wire inside it. The size of the tubular point is what determines the finished width. Standard widths of ink lines are measured according to a line-width code, such as. Use a good waterproof black drawing ink.

Good nonclogging ink that is specially made for use in fountain and technical pens is the best choice. Parallel Bar, T-Square, and Drafting Machines It is extremely important to make sure lines on design drawings and construction drawings are exactly straight and, when required, parallel. To make sure lines are straight in a horizontal, vertical, and angular direction, there are several tools available.

The most common of these instruments are the T-square and parallel bar Figure A device called a drafting machine Figure is also sometimes used. T-Square A T-square consists of a straightedge with a head set at right angles that can be set flush against the edge of a drawing board or table. The head is generally very sturdy and immovable. T-squares come in different lengths to coordinate with various drawing board sizes. The most common lengths are 36 and 42 inches. They are available with opaque or transparent edges, the latter making it easier to see through to existing lines when spacing by eye.

To use a T-square, one holds it with one hand usually the left at the head so it can be moved into position and held in place Figure An arm-track drafting machine can produce horizontal, vertical, and angular lines. The T-square is inexpensive and portable, which makes it convenient for students. However, in modern practice the T-square has been replaced by the parallel bar and the drafting machine, as they do not require a constant hand to steady the head. The bar moves up and down on thin wire that Frequently used angles such as 30, 45, and 60 degrees have positive moves runs over pulleys inside the bar.

When properly installed, set points. Scales are available in several lengths, in either archi- the bar can be moved up and down the drawing board and always tectural or metric measurements. They are also available in either be parallel with the top of it. Parallel bars are available in a vari- plastic or aluminum finishes. The parallel bar is easy to use.

It permits the drafter to draw long horizontal lines Triangles, Templates, and Compasses and serves as a base for the placement of triangles and other instru- A variety of other drawing tools are available for constructing ver- ments for precision drawing. It is fixed to the drawing board and consists of vertical on fixed-radius circular forms, and other special shapes such as representations of furniture, plumbing fixtures, and other interior equipment and furnishings.

There is also a scale in angular degrees on parallel straightedge for drawing vertical and angular lines Figure the head that replaces the protractor. A range of sizes is available, and the track type.

The arm type has two arms that pivot in the cen- with a size of 8 or 10 inches x mm being in the middle of ter with a head at the end of the lower arm — which is clamped to the range. Their size is based on the length of the longest side of the the top edge of the drafting table. The drafter moves the head up right angle.

It is best to begin with these; then larger and smaller and down and right and left. The head and the scales on it remain sizes can be added as needed. For example, small triangles, such as parallel to their original setting.

The track type has a horizontal 4 inches mm , are useful for hand-lettering and crosshatching track mounted to the top edge of the drafting table with a vertical small areas. The head with the Adjustable triangles can be set for any angle from 0 to 45 scales on it is fastened to the vertical track and slides up and down.

The adjustable triangle is convenient for situations requir- Drafting machines are available for right- or left-handed people. Right-handed people hold the head in place with the left hand.

Some triangles are available with recessed edges for use when Left-handed people hold the head in their right hand with the inking.

They are scratchresistant and generally have good edge retention. They should not be used as a cutting edge as they are easy to nick, and they must be used and stored carefully. Figure Triangles are also used to create straight lines when drawing.

Basic interiors construction and drawings details skills pdf for

When used with a parallel bar or T-square, angular and vertical lines can be drawn. Shown on the left is a fixed triangle; on the right is an adjustable triangle. Templates Templates are prepunched patterns representing various shapes commonly used in interior design and architectural plans Figure Templates help to speed up the drafting process and aid in the production of accurate drawings.

There are a variety of templates available, some of which are used regularly, while others are needed for special purposes only. There are templates that are used to draw circles, squares, windows, doors, electrical symbols, plumbing fixtures, furnishings, and hundreds of other features.

The circle template is a very basic and highly useful timesaving device for drawing accurate circles of various sizes as well as curves that are parts of circles. Ellipse templates come in similar sizes, but since ellipses vary from near flat to near circular, Figure Templates are used to speed up the drafting process by tracing the punched shapes directly onto a drawing.

Templates come in a variety of patterns and scales. However, a single guide with the most commonly used proportions is available. French curved templates are excellent tools for drawing irregular curved lines that are not part of a circle or ellipse. These guides consist of at least a dozen traditional forms that can help a designer draw almost any flowing curve needed.

There are also flexible drawing curves available that can be bent as needed to fit an irregular curved line. They can hold the shape as the line is drawn, then straightened out after use. Other useful templates include forms for both residential and commercial furniture, as well as plumbing fixtures, retail fixtures, and lighting and electrical symbols.

Lettering templates are best used for very large letters and numbers that may be difficult to form freehand. Compass A compass is an inverted V-shaped instrument used for drawing circles and arcs Figure It has a pin at the end of one leg and a leadholder at the end of the other.

Skills construction for drawings basic details pdf and interiors

A special device will allow Figure Compasses are used to technical pen points to be used with the compass. The best way to draw circles and arcs; this illustra- use a compass is to mark a centerpoint and the radius desired on tion shows a compass with a lead a piece of paper and adjust the compass to that measurement by point, and the attachment used setting the pin on the center point and setting the pencil or pen when drawing with ink. Hold the compass firmly at the top, leaning it a little in the direction the circle will be drawn, then rotate it.

Generally, rotating it in a clockwise direction is easier. Press hard enough to get the desired line weight.

Be careful to match line weights of circles and arcs to the rest of the drawing. Scales are special rulers that can be used for meas- part of their real full-size dimensions. Architectural and interior uring in a variety of units and that enable the designer to draw an design line work generally represents objects that are much larger object larger than, smaller than, or the same size as the real full- than the drawing paper; therefore, a proportional measuring sys- size object.

Scales are calibrated in inches or millimeters much tem must be used. This scale of the drawing is always stated on the like a regular ruler. They are available in either a flat or a trian- drawing. When a drawing is drawn to scale, this means that all gular shape Figure Triangular scales are very popular dimensions on the drawing are related to the real object, or space, because as many as four scales can be printed on each face.

The shape also makes them convenient to pick up and use. Flat a foot in the full-size object. The scaled inches are located on the other side of the 0 point. These divisions are indicated as 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, to be drawn at various sizes. As there are 40 subdivisions with- and metric units, and in various in an inch, each mark represents 1 foot. This scale can also be shapes and sizes.

A scale should used to represent larger units such as or 4, feet per inch. Metric scales are used when drawing architectural and interior depending on the number of scales they carry. Good-quality scales must have sharply defined graduations that are close to the edge for accurate measurements.

Scales are not meant to be a straightedge, and should never be used as a pencil or inking guide when drawing a straight line. The millimeter is the basic unit of the metric scale. Metric scales are based on ratios, such as 1: Typical ratios are 1: To enlarge a drawing, scales are available in 2: For example, a 1: It is used for laying out accurate design and con- mm.

Architectural scales generally contain 11 different divisions, where each major division repre- Erasers, Erasing Shields, and Brushes sents 1 foot. Each one of these divisions represents one the interior designer. Erasability is one of the key advantages of foot on the scale. Erasers, erasing shields, and the scale represents 1 foot. A good eraser must be capable of completely removing pencil or ink lines without leaving smudge marks or roughing the surface of the paper. For vellum drafting paper, soft rubber erasers should generally be used.

There are also special erasers designed to remove ink. However, be careful, as these erasers are too abrasive for some drawing surfaces. Some ink erasers claim to have a solvent incorporated into them for better erasing of ink. Erasers are available in either block form or stick form inserted into a holder much like a leadholder Figure Vinyl and other plastic erasers are designed for use on plastic drafting film. Electric erasers are extremely useful when a great amount of erasing is necessary.

Electric erasers are small handheld tools that hold long round lengths of eraser that are rotated when turned on. Figure An electric eras- The cordless variety is the most convenient Figure Figure Erasers come in various shapes and sizes, and different kinds can erase pencil or ink.

Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors: Basic Skills

Shown are a mechanical eraser-holder, a plastic block eraser in a sleeve, and a basic block eraser. The The prepunched holes come in a variety of sizes and shapes, allow- prepunched holes allow the ing the designer to erase small details and control the erasure up designer to erase only those to a particular point. It is also helpful for protecting the drawing lines needing to be erased. Although the transparency of a plastic shield can be convenient, a metal shield generally lasts longer.

Brushes A dusting brush is useful for keeping drafting surfaces clean and free of debris Figure Erasure crumbs are sometimes left on a Figure Dusting brushes can be used to clean an area in preparation for drawing, or to clean erasure crumbs drawing surface to help prevent smudges, but if they become too abundant they can cause lines to skip, so it is helpful to brush the drawing surface often.

Additional Equipment from a drawing in process. A number of additional tools may assist the designer. For example, full-circular degrees and half-circular degrees protractors aid in the layout and measuring of angles on a drawing. They are manufactured in a variety of sizes in both metal and plastic Figure Figure Protractors aid designers in laying out and measuring angles.

They come in a variety of sizes and materials. Like spoken language, written language, and body language, this visual language has its own unique applications.

In the design field, drawing, also called sketching or idea generation, is used as a technique for developing and communicating ideas. Preliminary sketches are used to initiate and explore basic concepts, as illustrated in Figure These can be presented to others as is, or refined into presentation drawings that are developed to scale and rendered in more detail. Drawing is thus a means of communication used by designers to effectively convey ideas and converse with one another about how to turn them into reality.

Drafting is usually a means to an end; that is, it serves as a guide on how to make something. For these reasons, drafting is founded on a number of basic premises and rules. Construction drawings require a great deal of effort to draw, as they must be clear, concise, and accurate, with high-quality lines and legible dimensions and notes.

Figure Sketching is a form of visual communication used to initiate and explore basic concepts. This illustration shows various sketches all relating to each other, helping to visualize a concept. This chapter will introduce the basics needed to produce quality and easily readable drawings and so effectively communicate with others. Figure A precise drawing illustrating how stairs and landings should be constructed. Starting the Drawing Drawings are executed on a paper or plastic sheet that is placed on the drawing board or surface.

It is usually held in place on the drawing surface with drafting tape placed at the four corners, as illustrated in Figure The opposite corners are pulled and taped alternately to stretch and flatten the sheet. When one is finished with the drawing or needs to remove it for a short period of time, the tape is carefully removed and discarded.

The sheet can then be stored flat or rolled for convenience. There is a tendency for beginners to roll original drawings and prints with the original line work or printed side on the inside, probably in an effort to protect the line work. However, the preferred way to roll a drawing is to do it with the printed information on the outside. In this way, as the drawing is unrolled, it will tend to curl away from the viewer and toward the surface it is placed on Figure This keeps the drawing from constantly curling up toward the viewer.

This technique is also effective for multiple copies stapled together in sets. Drawings are produced on a variety of surfaces with varying types of media, as discussed in Chapter 2. One of the first steps in composing a properly scaled drawing is to select the best size and format for the surface. To do this effectively, a number of variables must be taken into account.

These include the complexity and scale of the drawing, the reproduction technique selected, and the viewing conditions the reader will be under.

Rolling them with the Figure The drawing information on the outside paper is held in place on the allows the viewer to look at drawing surface with small the drawings without having pieces of drafting tape. Drawing Page Layout In manual drawing, one should start with very light lines and Original drawings, particularly those done in pencil, need to be darken those as needed for the final drawing Figure On the kept clean to provide for the clearest reproduction.

There is no preliminary stage of drawing with light consuming to read. Graphite from pencils is the greatest threat to lines. In manual drawings, it is good practice to start drawing at drawing cleanliness. Sliding hands, elbows, and equipment over the upper portion of the sheet and progress toward the bottom of pencil lines will blur them and produce an undesirable patina over the paper. In this way, most drawings will not be disturbed as you the entire drawing surface.

The same is true with ink drawings, move the equipment and hands down the sheet. Of course, com- whether they are done by hand or computer. Time must be allowed puter drawing allows one to begin almost anywhere on the sheet, for the ink to dry. Equipment should be lifted and placed over draw- compose the drawings, and print out the results in one clean plot. Final lines can then be darkened according to the desired line hierarchy. Line Types Lines are drawn to describe objects, hidden conditions, and important relationships between components and space.

A line drawn on a surface has both direction and weight. The weight of a line refers to its thickness and intensity; a line can also be continuous or dashed. The direction can be straight, curved, diagonal, or a combination of these. In drafting, continuous lines of various weights are used to represent objects and major elements such as structural walls and columns.

Dotted lines are usually used to denote objects hidden from view. The following are the most commonly used line types. Examples are shown in Figure They are also used to show objects above the cutting plane of a floor plan, such as wall cabinets, beams, arches, etc. Dimensions are placed directly line types used in drawings to above the dimension line or inserted within it.

Drawings for interior design projects generally use three line widths: In general, heavy dark lines are used to Medium lines fall between these two extremes.

In pencil drawings, represent cutting planes and contours or outer boundaries of an each type can be further broken down, depending on the variety of object. In a floor-plan view, it is often the walls that are drawn with lead and level of pressure.

With the variety of mechanical pencils the darkest lines in order to define the spaces Figure These on the market today, it is easy to control line widths.

Construction Drawings and Details for Interiors, 3rd Edition

As discussed in lines appear to be the closest to the viewer and are perceived as Chapter 2, fine-line mechanical pencils are available in a 0. Medium and lighter lines appear to be farther 0. By switching to different pencils, the drafter away from the viewer and are used for secondary emphasis. A thick, intense line can rep- spaces. The viewer tends resent the walls on a floor plan or structural members, such as fire- to see these lines first, and places or stairways, the outline of a ceiling on a reflected ceiling thus they are perceived as plan, or the outline of a building on a site plan.

Thick, intense lines major elements. Medium Lines Medium-weight lines are used for hidden objects and are usually drawn dashed or dotted. They are also used for outlining the planes of objects and for centerlines, as well as for furniture and equipment. Thin, Light Lines Thin, light lines are generally used as guidelines, drawn to help line up certain details or to help with lettering height. These lines should be barely visible and should disappear when a print or copy Figure Dark, thick lines are commonly used is made.

Lines that are a little darker are used for dimension and extension lines, leaders, door swings, and break lines. To do this effectively, a number of drafting standards, abbreviations, and symbols have been developed over time that have become uniformly acceptable in the building industry.

Although an office may use variations of the standard conventions presented here, most follow some version of these conventions.

Many construction terms are abbreviated to save drawing space and eliminate the need for detailed drawings or notes. The most commonly used abbreviations are discussed in Chapter 5 and shown in the Appendix. Symbols are used to represent objects that cannot be depicted accurately or would take too much time to draw. For example, the details of a window in plan or a wall electrical outlet are impractical to draw with clarity at such a small scale. These are represented in the plan by an acceptable symbol that is cross-referenced to a legend or note to more clearly define the object Figure Various components such as sinks, doors, windows, and electrical devices are drawn as symbols.

These will be discussed in more depth in later chapters. Sections cut through the building and materials are depicted using common symbols to represent their elements rather than drawing them as they might appear. For example, a section through a piece of plywood is shown schematically instead of drawn realistically to show the intricate layers of cross-grained wood veneers and glue.

Symbols for materials are often drawn differently in a plan view and section view. In most cases, an attempt is made to portray as closely as possible what the actual cross-section would look like Figure Again, typical symbols for architectural materials are discussed more in Chapter 5 and shown in the Appendix.

Figure In this illustration, an electrical plan is Lettering shown with various electri- Lettering is used to communicate ideas and to describe elements cal symbols, and the leg- that cannot be effectively explained with just drawings.

In some end above describes what cases, words are actually a clearer and more economical way to each symbol represents. To ensure written words are quickly understood, a universal lettering style is commonly employed by designers and architects Figure This style, based on the Roman alphabet, generally consists of all capital letters for ease of reading.

Although most designers employ a universal-looking style, individual styles do develop and are often recognized and associated with the person who uses them. However, stylistic differences must not be so extreme that letters and words become difficult or time-consuming to read.

The intent of architectural lettering is to communicate quickly and clearly. Many firms attempt to unify lettering among their personnel by adopting an office standard. Today, computer software quickly produces lettering in many styles that appear to be hand-lettered or typed Figure Some of these are so realistic it is difficult to tell whether they really are done by hand or by computer.

However, this does not mean that there is not a need for a student or designer to learn and produce good hand-lettering. The ability to hand-letter is still much alive and needed.

We still need to have effective handwriting when communicating with clients, builders, and many others in the field. Basic Guidelines for Lettering Figure Materials that are cut through in sec- Good lettering is made by consistency. This includes height of let- tion are depicted graphically. An attempt is made to ters, style, and spacing between letters. To maintain consistency in represent the material, but in general it is drawn height, hand-lettering is always done using two or more horizontal simplistically, since drawing all the intricate details guidelines.

To maintain consistency between lines of lettering, the would be too time-consuming. The two lines serve as the upper and lower limits of the letters. Figure Lettering on the computer can be done in many styles, even one that simulates hand-lettering. The draftsperson must endeavor to keep the let- Most designers prefer vertical strokes in lettering, although ters within the top and bottom lines, and not let parts of the letters slanted characters are often faster to produce.

Letters should be extend beyond these. In most cases, the guidelines are produced produced with bold strokes, not drawn with a series of sketched and with such a light line that they are left in and not erased.

In pen- ragged lines. There should be a distinct start and stop to each line and-ink drawing, these lines might be laid out in nonreproducible stroke within a letter.

REVIEW Construction drawings-and-details-for-interiors-basic-skills-p…

Shapes and proportions of lettering should be blue pencil lines. Two or three guidelines can be used, and these lines can remain on the drawing if produced should be given to the width of a letter, as well as the proportional spaces between letters.

This spacing is very important, as it gives words good visual formation and clarifies their relationship to other words. However, this rule can be modified as the designer gains confidence, as proportional spacing can vary a bit, depending on the shapes of the letters. One shortcut used for lettering by some designers is the aid of a small triangle carried along the parallel bar or other horizontal device and quickly brought into play for vertical strokes within a letter.

This technique produces a very consistent vertical lettering Figure Lettering should be consistent throughout a drawing; the shapes and proportions should be similar. If this technique is used, it should be discontinued once the draftsperson gains the ability and confidence to produce accurate vertical lines. To effectively learn proper lettering, one should produce words and numbers, not just individual letters. Practice by copying phrases from articles and books, or writing a story.

This will give you better skills in forming properly proportioned letters and spaces between them. Then, detailed construction drawings are made to accurately describe what materials are to be used and how the object or space is to be constructed. The design drawing can be a threedimensional pictorial sketch that shows what the object looks like in reality Figure , or a series of related yet different views of the object, such as a plan or top view and an elevation, as illustrated in Figure The first approach, the single view, attempts to portray the object as the eye would see it.

The second approach, the multiview, relies on the eye to view a series of images and the mind to then put these views together into a whole. For example, a floor plan shows width and length of objects within a space. An elevation view is then drawn to illustrate height, but no third dimension or true depth is visually indicated. Figure classifies the various drawing systems according to these two broad categories. Many computer software programs now can produce some very convincing single-view drawings from multiviews, then allow designers to quickly flip back and forth between these two types of drawings.

Multiview Drawings Multiview drawings can be visualized by what is commonly called Figure Design drawings Figure Different views of an the glass box theory.

In this process, a three-dimensional object is may consist of pictorial sketches object help the eye understand imagined to be surrounded by a clear glass box Figure