The adventures of Sherlock Holmes is a collection of 12 detective fiction stories by Arthur Conan Doyle. An inevitable collection of Adventure stories, without. Moreover, by comparing early Hindi and Bengali detective novels, Orsini investigates how early Hindi detective novels focused on the new British notions of. Return to "हत्या प्रियंका की- detective novels in hindi pdf" crime story in hindi, death story in hindi, murder mystery in hindi, suspence stories in hindi.
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In some cases, stories about the same hero were attributed to different authors by different publishing houses, and it became obvious that different authors were being used to ghost write these novels. Browse through our eBooks while discovering great authors and exciting books. However, in the novels, Mona Darling morphs from criminal moll into superhero detective spy. Marika Vicziany and Robert Cribb , accessed June 12, , http: Destiny Dove is the only survivor of a tragic car crash that killed her parents and baby brother.
The novel was written by an author who lived in the city of Meerut, near Delhi, one of the new centres that became associated with Hindi detective fiction in the s. He belonged to a new generation of novelists who wrote only in Hindi, unlike earlier authors such as Ibne Safi who had written in both Hindi and Urdu.
Here, he became fairly well off through his writing. He typically wrote two or more novels every month, in one of a number of different series. Apart from detective fiction, he wrote historical novels. One of these historical novels, Dawn to Dusk, which concerned the life of the last Mughal Emperor Badshah Zafar, achieved a certain fame. Towards the end of his life, Sharma estimated that he had written over novels. By the age of 27, he had published one hundred novels, some independent, but mostly in the form of works in a number of series based on different leading characters.
Since , he has published his books through his own publishing house, Tulsi Books; and he has won a number of prizes. Some of his books have been turned into films and a TV serial has been made out of his Keshav Pandit series of novels.
One constant theme in these interviews is the fact that in the s authors such as himself were exploited by the publishing houses, being paid as little as RS or two dollars per story.
Even for a novel the going rate was only a figure Figure 5. Sharma notes that the sales and readership for these novels was at its highest in the early s and that a few of his novels sold in excess of three hundred thousand copies.
In some cases, stories about the same hero were attributed to different authors by different publishing houses, and it became obvious that different authors were being used to ghost write these novels. By the late s, it is notable that the tradition of lurid cover paintings for detective storybooks had begun to be replaced by covers made up from photographic montages.
In a newspaper article about the changing fortunes of Hindi detective fiction, Shelle, one of the most prolific of its cover artists, commented ruefully that whilst he used to paint four or more covers a month, by he was no longer painting any at all. These books typically responded to world news: These detective novels therefore often featured stories in which the patriotic defence of India was somehow intertwined with the foiling of international criminal plots.
It is important to remember that these books were all written as monthly series; to what extent any author could really churn out one novel a month for years on end must be open to question.
It seems quite likely that even when a book claimed it had been written by a particular author, it might nonetheless have been ghost written by an authorial team. What is more, sometimes a number of different publishing houses would publish books about the same heroes but written by different authors. However, in the novels, Mona Darling morphs from criminal moll into superhero detective spy.
The story Figure 7. The book apparently was published just after Atal Behari Vajpayee had overseen an Indian nuclear bomb test at Pokharan in Once again, this publication shows the odd way in which themes and current affairs are mixed up in these novels. Featuring a cast of both virtuous and villainous Chinese characters as well as the normal cast of criminals and heroes, Monsoon Clouds is an account of how international criminal mafia gangs are collaborating with the Chinese to destabilize the North Eastern states.
It could be argued that even in this age of increasing Indian sophistication, there is much in India that stands outside of the tide of modernization. Indeed, these detective stories are full of a variety of ethnic stereotypes, including villainous Chinese, crude Westerners, Indian Mafioso and virtuous Indians. In truth, they demonstrate very little sophistication.
Quite the opposite, they illustrate a rough and ready approach to life, one that nevertheless clearly appeals to rural migrant workers who, while pulling rickshaws around the bustling cities of a newly urbanized and modernized India, are also trying to make some sense of their world. Figure 8. He noted how sales figures had sharply fallen off, from a high of hundreds of thousands for one book to a just a few thousand at the present time. He attributed this decline to a saturation of the market by sensationalist and titillating works.
Pawanpreet Kaur suggests that the former middle class readers of Hindi detective fiction are now more likely to be reading English books and that since , there has been a sharp increase in the number of people watching TV for entertainment.
However, Kaur also notes that between and some publishing houses were reporting increasing sales in the major metros. He also notes, however, that it is not that the genre has died, but rather that it has simply fallen from the height of its greatest popularity in the latter part of the twentieth century. Moreover, like other commentators, I believe the main reason for the decline in the readership of the print versions of Hindi detective fiction may be the rise of the mobile phone.
In their study, The Great Indian Phone Book , Robin Jeffrey and Assa Doron chart the way in which the mobile phone has changed the lives of people at all levels of Indian society since its first inception in This was not done via the Internet, but rather at the stalls where phones could be recharged and content purchased.
It was in a sense a very similar model to that of the bookstalls, but instead of renting a book for a day or two, you could now pay to have content downloaded onto your phone by the megabyte.
This caused a rise in the viewing of pirated Bollywood films and new forms of sensational entertainment, such as pornography and salacious re—imaginings of folk music genres.
The key issue here is that such content was not Hindi detective fiction, which is hard to read on a small phone screen, but the kind of film entertainment that previously people had to go to cinemas to see. Two other factors that may have had some influence on the sales of Hindi detective fiction relate to the venues for its sale.
In , the Indian government removed the monopoly that the A. Wheeler business had had on all bookstalls on Indian railways.
This led to a seven—year court case between the company and the state that caused a great deal of turmoil in the sales of books at Indian railway stations. Wheeler has historically been a major publishing contractor for Hindi detective fiction, the court case is likely to have had a considerable impact on the sales of Hindi detective fiction. Furthermore, from around onwards, there was a great deal of restructuring in the Indian cinema industry.
Many of the old single screen cinemas, with their associated bookstalls, closed down and were replaced by multiplexes in shopping malls.
It is estimated that sales often peaked at several hundred thousand copies per novel and of up to fifty to eighty publishing houses being active publishing multiple works each month. Such figures suggest that at its peak sales might have been running in the area of twenty million copies a month of Hindi detective novels.
However, copies of a sold book were probably read by multiple readers as second—hand copies were often hired out by stall holders in locations such as the Pahar Ganj market outside New Delhi railway station.
This would suggest that at the height of the readership of pulp fiction, Hindi detective novels attracted a staggering number of readers to this literary genre. Of course, this proposition is very hard to substantiate.
While in theory it might be possible to find out how many Hindi detective novels were sold by the major houses, it would be impossible to find accurate circulation figures for pulp fiction novels hired out by stall owners. This makes it difficult to measure the demise of the Hindi pulp fiction detective novel.
Equally, there are no accurate statistics on the contemporary practice of the localised distribution of illegal digital content by Indian stallholders. These days, the sector of the public which was arguably previously the main readership for Hindi pulp fiction, the marginal working poor of urban India, appears to have abandoned imaging the perils and pleasures of their heroes and heroines through reading about them in print novels having begun to consume the same media content through their smartphones instead.
However, on balance, it does seem that the rapid reported demise of the pulp fiction detective story industry has taken place at around the same time that the distribution of content on mobile phones first took off. What is more, the anecdotal reports by stallholders mentioned in the press suggest that there has been a rapid fall in sales over the last decade.
The Internet and the Reincarnation of Hindi Detective Pulp Fiction The reports of the complete demise of Hindi detective pulp fiction may nevertheless be somewhat premature. What is more, Hindi detective pulp fiction has increasingly becoming available on the Internet for legitimate purchase as e—books, while websites for famous authors, such as the one established in the name of the late Om Prakash Sharma, offer online scanned versions of many of his classic novels to read at no charge.
In addition, a number of sites, such as newshunt. There is of course quite a lot more available in one way or another via illegal download sites, but behind most of the links claiming to be Hindi detective pulp fiction online is merely old pulp fiction, the classic works in Urdu by Ibne Safi and the main Hindi pulp fiction detective authors of the s to s, some of whom continue to produce new work.
Overall, however, it appears that very little new content is being produced. This may be, in part, because the economic model that supported pulp fiction is broken: There is also some presence of Hindi pulp fiction on the web on what are essentially fan sites. It has none of the momentum that characterised the mass market Hindi pulp fiction of the twentieth century. On a note of caution, it should be mentioned that certain sectors of society that were previously the main readers of Hindi pulp fiction, such as marginal workers, are unlikely to be able to easily access Hindi detective fiction over the Internet.
As yet only a few of these sites make their content easy to read on a small phone screen, which is the typical product that a poorer Indian mobile phone user would possess.
Conclusion What is striking about the rise and fall of Hindi pulp fiction is that it charted the ways in which post—independence India negotiated modernity. In particular, it shows how a gradual rise in literacy led to the mass consumption of the detective pulp fiction genre in the second half of the twentieth century. However, it also points to the way in which digital media, distributed largely through downloads onto mobile phones, have now brought the world of Bollywood movies into the personal viewing habits of many Indians and displaced detective pulp fiction into a kind of afterlife on the Internet.
Notes 1 Steven Knight, Crime Fiction: Essays on the Nineteenth Century, ed. Stuart H.
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