University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing edition, This edition adapted from a Intersection of American Media and Culture 4. The Evolution of. introduction to mass communication media literacy and culture 7th edition pdf media and culture mass communication in a digital age chapter. Download full-text PDF Media Ethics: Cases and Moral Reasoning, Eighth Edition Communication, culture, and representation
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Duggan, Maeve. Digital divide Research concluded that it is not necessary to rely solely on. Media Literacy and the Critical Process: See and discover other items: Search engines gradually became commercialized, and because of this commercialization, they are hardly impartial information tools.
While no one owns the Internet, some businesses have had commercial success controlling parts of the Internet experience. A Providing physical access to the Internet through phone, cable, and satellite links B Selling advertising space on the Internet C Designing and providing programs that allow users to network with others over the Internet D Designing and running directories and search engines E All of the options are correct.
Why did AOL begin losing customers in the early s? A It didn't provide instant messaging. B It couldn't keep up with the advent of broadband Internet connections. C It didn't screen out pornographic sites. D It merged with Time Warner. E It merged with Google. Which statement about the business model of Google is true? A Google makes the majority of its money from subscription fees.
B Google makes the majority of its money from pay-per-click advertisements. C Google is a nonprofit organization dedicated to universal access to information. D The majority of Google's revenue comes from selling its cloud-based word processing program. Which of the following statements about targeted advertising is not true? A It is a passing fad because it is unpopular with advertisers and generates very little revenue. B It is a big part of the revenue of sites like Google and Facebook.
C Some versions read your e-mail messages to find key words that trigger specific ads. D It may undermine the role of search engines to provide neutral access to information. E It may turn search engines into ad brokers. What is spyware and what does it do? A It is a way for the government to figure out if you are accessing pornography online. C It is a computer program that lets you access secret information from sources like WikiLeaks. D It is a computer program that is secretly bundled with other software that allows someone to collect private information.
Which of the following is not a threat to privacy of personal information on the Internet? A A policy that assumes a Web site has the right to collect and share your information B A policy of inserting spyware on unsuspecting computers C A policy whereby consumers have to give their consent before a Web site can collect any browsing history data D A policy favored by marketers and data-mining corporations E A policy of tricking search engines into including Web sites in their search results Page 11 The law that grants sweeping powers to law-enforcement agencies to intercept individuals' online communications, including e-mail messages and browsing records is the.
A form of Internet identity theft involving phony e-mail messages asking customers to update their credit card numbers, account passwords, and other personal information is called. A spamming B data-mining C targeting D open sourcing E phishing What does the term digital divide refer to?
A The ability of the rich to have access to the latest information technology while the poor do not B The length of time it takes for messages to travel between two continents C The competition between software companies D The programming gap between using a Microsoft operating system and a system like Linux E The difference in quality between an analog and a digital recording According to the American Library Association, what are the limitations of trying to protect children from inappropriate material on the Internet?
A It's annoying to have to disable the filters every time an adult wants to access that material. B There is no way to filter out all illegal content but still allow access to constitutionally protected materials.
C Current filtering software doesn't block enough material. D There isn't enough federal funding for all schools and libraries to have the filtering software. E There are no limitations.
Page 12 Which of the following statements about Linux software is true? A It's free. B Many people have contributed to its development.
C It is most often found on operating servers rather than PC desktops. D It was established by Linus Torvalds in Designed by the U. Invented in the s, the is the most popular part of the Internet and is essentially the navigation system for it.
Web navigation software packages such as Firefox and Microsoft's Internet Explorer are known as. ISP stands for Internet provider. Although email remains a standard for business-related text communications in the digital era, it has been surpassed in popularity by , which enables typed conversations in real time. YouTube is an example of an online video community.
The Kindle Fire and iPad are examples of touchscreen. Page 13 Apple's voice-recognition software, Siri, is an example of the. The socioeconomic disparity between those who do and those who do not have access to digital technology and media such as the Internet is sometimes referred to as the.
Written code that creates Web pages and links is called. Facebook is an example of a n. The is the most frequently visited region of the Internet. A n is a procedure whereby Web sites ask for your explicit permission before they can collect browsing history or other data. The were an FCC plan twice rejected by federal courts. AOL is an example of a n. Name a group that worked to establish the early Internet.
Explain the motivation for developing the Internet. Many experts agree that one of the major characteristics that make the Internet unique is that it cannot be centrally controlled.
Explain why and how this came about. What are the key issues involving ownership and control of the Internet? Page 14 Briefly describe how digital communication has progressed from e-mail. What is social media? Give at least three examples. Briefly explain how the converging of media content on the Internet, from movies to books to music, came about. Page 15 Answer Key 1. When do you use it? Do you have problems with spamming? Has e- mail changed your phone or interpersonal communication habits?
When do you feel obligated to respond to someone? When is it a burden? When is it a convenience? What sort of e-mail etiquette are you aware of, especially when addressing your instructors? Group activities: The Internet has such a broad impact that it may be useful to narrow the focus by splitting students into groups and assigning each group a category of issues to discuss.
Ask them to think about the ways in which the Internet has affected these areas and its potential for generating new developments in the future. Then have each group report back to the class and generate discussion from there. Internet voting in the future: Who would be the audiences here attention to social class?
Discuss the Internet as a space for alternative political groups. Ask about hate groups campaigning: Is it fair or not? How to regulate campaigning: Should the government step in? If so, when or where? Also consider the Internet on a global level. What does the Internet do for consumers information provider? What industries can students think of that have been impacted retail, services, travel and how? Discuss the ability to work from home.
How does the Internet help or hurt academia in terms of research capabilities and plagiarism? What is the place of the Internet in the classroom e. What do students like or dislike about it? Also discuss anticheating initiatives such as Turnitin and iThenticate.
Consider the idea of self-care and self-diagnosis over the Internet. What about medical consulting online with doctors or ordering prescription drugs? What role does the Internet play in self-research on alternative treatments, medical conditions particularly useful for anything with a social stigma, e. Investigate WebMD: Interpersonal this subject dovetails with the e-mail question above: Are virtual relationships or communities somehow less real or legitimate in our society?
Internet dating and personal ads: How have they changed social interaction? Get students thinking about the physical qualities of communication, such as voice and nonverbal communication or body language. Has the Internet made us all homebodies? This question should probably be saved for last, as people often like to talk about this element the most. The paper they produce is due in sections, which correspond with the steps in the Critical Process.
Read industry trade sources to get a sense of the main issues affecting the cable industry. Look at the Web sites of industry trade associations and professional societies.
Links to Web sites of some industry trade sources are given in the Classroom Media Sources below. Take notes on topics that have multiple stories or mentions in the current year.
What recent issues or developments in the industry have received a lot of recent attention, discussion, or commentary in industry sources?
Only focus on information from the current year—and only from trade sources. Write a one-page synopsis of the information you found about current topics in the industry. Cite your sources properly. Look for one development or pattern that has received significant attention on trade sites and from trade journalists in the current year. Choose one specific trend, and write one or two pages with details about the information you found about that trend. Continue to track news about your topic as the semester progresses.
Cite sources properly. What does the trend mean for the state of the industry? Is it evolving? What does it tell you about media in general at the current time? What might it say about our culture or our society? Can your information help us interpret the role of the industry in our lives?
Write up your interpretation in a five-page paper.
The first page should be a synopsis of the trend, with proper citations. You might not have to provide information from your sources for the next four pages because this section is your interpretation of the trend. Save any ideas you have about whether the trend is "good" or "bad" for the Evaluation step of the Critical Process. Is the trend "good" or "bad?
What do you think might happen in the future? Are there any actions you can take related to your trend and the industry? Possibilities include posting your views on social media, creating a petition, contacting people in the industry to see what they think of your interpretation and evaluation, or going to an industry event if any are held nearby.
This step need not be required if students are not motivated to take action. This exercise works well if each step of the Critical Process is due two weeks after the prior step is due.
Limiting students to only trade sources and only information from the current year helps keep them on track. Your institution's librarians should be able to provide students with information on how to access industry trade sources. The Net , 1: Net Neutrality , 2: In this video, experts discuss net neutrality and privatization of the Internet. User-Generated Content , 3: Editors, producers, and advertisers—David Gale, Jeff Goodby, Robin Sloan, and Matt York—discuss the variety of user-generated content and how it can contribute to the democratization of media.
Behind the Web , 50 minutes. Weaving the Web: New York: HarperBusiness, Misunderstanding the Internet. Second edition. Routledge, Duggan, Maeve. Goldsmith, Jack L. Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World. Oxford University Press, Spreadable Media: Creating Value and Meaning in a Networked Culture. New York University Press, Participatory Culture in a Networked Era: Malden, MA: Polity Press, Kalathil, Shanthi, and Taylor C.
Open Networks, Closed Regimes: The Impact of the Internet on Authoritarian Rule. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Negroponte, Nicholas. Being Digital. Knopf, Rideout, Vicky. The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens.
San Francisco: Common Sense Media Research, Alone Together: Basic Books, Chapter 3 Digital Gaming and the Media Playground In this chapter, we will take a look at the evolving mass medium of digital gaming and: The major digital media companies—Apple, Google, Amazon, and Facebook—are now all invested in digital games, especially those used on mobile phone, tablet, and social media platforms, giving rise to tens of thousands of gaming apps.
Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Solutions manual for media and culture an introduction to mass communication 11th edition by campbell ibsn 1. The digital turn has made us more fragmented—but also more connected, and mass media are more integrated into our lives than ever before.
Chapter 2 The Internet, Digital Media, and Media Convergence In this chapter, we examine the many dimensions of the Internet, digital media, and convergence. We will: We are the focus of our social media. We create and share text, images, audio, and videos. Others—friends, celebrities, coworkers, families—create and share as much as we do, and we want to know all about them and their posts as much as we want them to know about ours.
The generalized anxiety fostered by embeddedness 2. The Development of the Internet and the Web A. The Birth of the Internet. The Net Widens. The Commercialization of the Internet.
The World Begins to Browse. Users Link in through Telephone and Cable Wires. People Embrace Digital Communication. Search Engines Organize the Web. The Web Goes Social A. Types of Social Media. Collaborative Projects. Content Communities. Social Networking Sites.
Social Media and Democracy.
Convergence and Mobile Media A. Mobile Devices Propel Convergence. Our Changing Relationship with the Media. Our Changing Relationship with the Internet. The Changing Economics of Media and the Internet. The Next Era: The Semantic Web. The Economics and Issues of the Internet A. Controlling the Internet. Targeted Advertising and Data Mining. Government Surveillance. Online Fraud. What Should Be Online? The Fight to Prevent a Digital Divide.
Net Neutrality: Maintaining an Open Internet. Alternative Voices. Open-Source Software. Digital Archiving. The Internet and Democracy Examining Ethics: Googling is the most popular way to search 70 percent of searches. However, the typical exit strategy is to get acquired by one of the major search companies: Google, Yahoo! MedStory, for example, was purchased by Microsoft in Search engines are impartial information tools.
Search engines search the entire Web, gleaning the most relevant results. Search engines vary greatly, thus offering choice and a competitive marketplace. Search engines are the only place to go for relevant information on the Web. Search engines gradually became commercialized, and because of this commercialization, they are hardly impartial information tools. Moreover, since only a few search engines Google, Yahoo!
Most discouraging, their results are becoming less and less relevant, marginalizing information generated by nonprofit organizations. There is a growing movement among digital librarians and computer scientists to sidestep commercial search engines which favor commercial enterprise and link hundreds of thousands of subject directories also called subject gateways together and then search them in the same way one uses a search engine.
This linking would give hard-to-find, marginalized nonprofit sites such as academic specialty sites a presence on the Web. For an example, visit OAIster www. Google has even gone abroad, customizing search sites in numerous languages and tailoring its site to dozens of countries google. Some companies, however, are taking a stab at Google by rethinking how Web searches could be reconfigured. Niche search engines have also gained some ground: Kayak and Mobissimo for travel, ShopItToMe and Ideel Groupon purchased and renamed Ideeli in for fashion, and Healthline for health health is a particularly difficult area for a general search engine like Google to handle because the jargon is so specific.
If so, how? The old model was that consumers or marketers paid for content through subscription fees or advertising revenue. The new model is that media outlets pay consumers for their amateur video content. Some of the content is winding up on television shows such as Tosh. A Pew Research Center study found that 31 percent of online adults, 18 years of age or older, use Pinterest and 28 percent of online adults use Instagram.
The full report is available at http: Discuss the possibilities and limitations of newer technology like smartphones and tablets. Arguably just as important are the tools that people use to go online.
Discuss how those options have changed since the mids and what that has meant for the day-to-day ways in which people use the Internet. Ask students what kinds of Internet-capable devices they have, and if they have multiple devices, ask them how they use each device. How often do they rely on apps instead of Web sites? When did they begin their shift to apps? Here is the chronology of iPhones with the dates of their release: The iPhone 7 was released in Android phone apps are available from Google Play and the Amazon Appstore.
For example, they are now used as money exchange devices.
Retailers can turn a mobile phone or tablet into a point of sale a digital cash register with Square, a credit card reader that plugs into a mobile device.
Enabling consumers to use their mobile phones to exchange money without involving credit card companies and their high fees is the next goal in digital transactions. Cash remains the most secure medium for information security, though, because it contains no personal information at all. In one location—a barren stretch of desert along the Oregon—Washington border—a single computer complex stretches over two football fields.
This acquisition was no joke, though; it sent shockwaves through media industries. Together, we are natural partners to offer a compelling media entertainment service to users, content owners and advertisers. They disdain losing revenue when their content is posted on YouTube.
Saturday Night Live, for example, has received a major boost from users sharing various skits across the YouTube platform. To compete with YouTube, big media companies are scrambling to invest in their own online video sites.
In their effort to reclaim viewers who watch clips of their shows on YouTube, media competitors also formed unlikely video distribution alliances in As the Seattle Times reported in March 23, p.
A study by the Pew Research Center http: Two-thirds of online harassment occurs on social networking sites or apps. Interestingly, more than half of victims ignored their most recent incident. Discuss the consequences of the digital divide both within the United States and between rich and poor nations. Explain the strategies of some Third World countries for getting ahead in the digital age as well as the wider infrastructural challenges they face.
Examine the impact the Internet has had on freedom of expression in the world. As it has done with other technology, Apple helped popularize the use of wireless networking, or Wi-Fi. It is also trying to support sustainable community networks throughout the world by developing and disseminating open-source Wi-Fi software.
Media Literacy and the Critical Process: Services like My Yahoo! Users visiting their personalized My Yahoo! The downside of personalization, however, is that it requires users to fill out a detailed questionnaire that can take up to a half hour to complete. The questionnaires, users are told, serve to fine-tune their personal pages, but they also work as market surveys for companies like Yahoo!
By , there was mounting public, congressional, and regulatory concern over online privacy and the extreme data-collection practices of the four major search companies: Microsoft, and Ask. Amid FCC and consumer concerns, the four largest search engine companies responded with a gesture of self-regulation, announcing they would tighten their privacy policies as follows: Make all data on search queries anonymous after eighteen months.
Make all data on search queries anonymous after thirteen months.