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Translating Words, Translating Cultures. The element of comparison used will be the same defining anger in Achilles, which we see from the very opening verse of the Iliad. Fitzgerald, Robert, tr. Latijns-Amerikaans leuk Latijns-Amerikaans adj sul-ameri. Yet, mythological elements that we find in these literary works, with archetypes, symbols, explicit or implicit recourse to ancient traditions and belief systems, are an indelible mark of what many myth scholars identify as the eternal return: Crete reformulated Two episodes in the myth of Ariadne, in particular, have attracted poets, painters, and sculptors from antiquity to the present day. He banishes the threat that viewers and readers will be turned to stone if they face the image by following Perseus and mediating the face of the Gorgon.

Whether under the traits of Orpheus or another mythical hero, what Skrjabin seeks to achieve through his artwork is a superhuman feat. A wide range of meanings that encourages free adaptations of the original myth. The core of this article, however, focuses on the revival or return of the Homeric myth as a metaphor of the tragic adventurous journeys faced by immigrants across the Mediterranean.

Directors Sergio Maifredi in Odissea: An Adventure beyond Arts, Myths, and Everyday Life in Europe both choose the sea and water as their main stage. As in many classical works of Gothic fiction, immortality appears as a punishment, a curse the characters cannot get rid of. An updated return of the original myth that replaces the treatment of Penelope as a passive weaver of a mortifying shroud, to an active heroine who unveils her self through her textual relationship with Odysseus.

Finally, taking the point of view of Comparative Literature and the Constructivist Rhetoric, Sara Molpeceres shows how the zombie myth has been recently shaped within modern imagery. From the earliest examples of pulp fiction to the most recent movies, the zombie myth has been enriched with new mythemes e. As Molpeceres proves in her article, the zombie myth has become a symbol of some dangers of the modern world, such as the rampant consumerism of the capitalist system, and in many cases stands for a call for a social revolution.

Finally, Elisabeth S. Weagel examines the story of Cinderella, which exists in almost every culture and has been told and retold for hundreds of years. Even with a rise in criticism of the tale since the s, it is one that the world and its many cultures cannot seem to let go of—we keep returning to it as if it is a reflection or presentiment of our identities.

While contrarians have decried the story for teaching girls to live passive lives, Weagel finds instead a rich female community made up of Cinderella, her deceased mother, and a female divine figure either her fairy godmother or other magical figure that redefines intra-female relationships and female spirituality.

The pattern of return to the tale, then, is not indicative of some misdirected fantasy, but of an unnamed recognition that informs our sense of self. Human fate is shaped by the eternal return, and, whether we want it or not, it seems our true happiness relies on the full acceptance of this fact. Since the dawn of humankind, myths from all over the world have re-enacted the different forms of this eternal return, as illustrated in nature, heroes or marvellous lands; the same applies to writers, painters, and artists in general, fascinated all of them by the cyclical pattern that surrounds us.

The present volume offers examples drawn from American, English, French, Italian, Greek, and Russian literature, as well as from cinema, music, comic-books, and politics. Poets, novelists, playwrights, composers and film-makers have given a new twist to myths that emerge once and again, always renewed and adapted to modern times.

Neither can new technology nor new media resist the alluring and evocative nature of ancient myths. These stories, old as time, make us connect with our most intimate essence, an inner self that has remained the same throughout the centuries.

And this is probably the key to their success: As editors of this collection of articles, we hope and wish that they help to shed more light on the complex issue of the eternal return, or at least invite the reader to rethink some of the themes that have remained both delightful and mysterious for ages. Margaret Fuller, Mary Shelley and George Eliot , and she is the co-editor of the book Fantasmas, aparecidos y muertos sin descanso She is co-editor with Prof. That said, in occidental culture time is characterized by a linear projection past — present — future — an aspect profoundly steeped in Judaeo-Christian thinking; this projection also characterizes space at microcosmic and macrocosmic levels.

From this — in general terms and accounting for exceptions — we envisage our space and our time as unique, irreversible: On this point, the majority of cosmologies show their particular differences with respect to that of our Western civilization. For the most part in Asian, African and indigenous American cosmologies, the time and space of the cosmos are marked by a circular projection, at both microcosmic and macrocosmic levels. Following on from this general conception, any space and any time are not unique; they will come again.

By positing that something that has come to pass will again come to pass, the myth of the Eternal Return contradicts the principle of irreversibility. In view of this disparity in the perception of the passing of time, Cultural Mythcriticism can provide a number of illuminating hints regarding the Eternal Return— every myth invokes an absolute cosmogony or eschatology.

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These societies do not conceive of the passing of life and epochs as separate, yoked to a continuous profane time like our own, rather as regulated — following a transhistorical model — by a series of archetypes that give all of their metaphysical value to human existence.

From this pre-Socratic perspective, every ad quem is only apparent, as is any value given to the objects of the exterior world: A vulgar stone may, by virtue of its symbolic value, or its origin celestial or marine , acquire a sacred character a meteorite, a pearl. The same applies to human acts. Nourishment or marriage are not mere physical operations, rather they reproduce a primordial act, repeat a mythical example: Journal of Comparative Literature and Aesthetics, Vol.

All cosmic cataclysms tell of the destruction of the world and the annihilation of humanity, save for a few survivors: From this eschatology, a virgin earth emerges, the symbol of a cosmogony, which leads to another eschatology and so on.

This knowledge of universal happening would disappear without representation: But we must be careful not to limit ourselves to a material interpretation. These ceremonies go far beyond a merely physical sense; they symbolize another metaphysics and cosmos: Kalachakra, the wheel of time In Jainist cosmology Jainism is an ancient religion of India, which today has around 5 million followers both the universe and time lack beginning and end.

The ascendant series is characterized by the progressive character of the duration of its epochs, the happiness and prosperity of humanity, their longevity and size, their goodness and virtue. The descendant series is characterized as exactly the opposite. Thus, we now live in the fifth stage, which begun in AD, which will last 21, years, without spiritual guide and with an abundance of evil, while in the sixth stage the totally depraved humans will barely measure a metre and a half, and will only live 20 years.

In ethico-chronological terms: The Hindu conception of time coincides, basically, with that of Jainism, as well as Mayan cosmologies. In these cultures, in general, cosmogonic chronology and eschatology is circular and, as a consequence, infinite, eternal: Gods are symbolic personifications of the laws that govern the flow of life forces; that is to say, they appear with those forces and with them they disappear. To put it another way, the gods are not eternal.

To put it yet more starkly: The myth of Persephone is of great utility in the study of its cosmogonic and eschatological implications. The most illuminating and emotive telling of this myth is provided by the anonymously authored Hymn to Demeter 7th century BC. Persephone relaxes in the company of friends and nymphs in a meadow carpeted with flowers in Nyssa Cappadocia. We all know the sequence of events: No sooner does Demeter accept the deal than the Earth begins to cover itself with flowers and leaves once more.

The hymn to Demeter has been interpreted by numerous anthropologists as a personification of the crop cycle,a seed which spends various winter months interred beneath the ground before coming back to life.

Many others have criticised, not without reason, the simplifications presented by this reading. What is clear is that the chronology of any mythical cycle, in addition to lending itself to multiple interpretations, can provide a key to the myth of the Eternal Return.

Catabasis and anabasis present themselves as multi-faceted and every voyage into the Underworld from our world to that one, and the return irresistibly invites a perception of repetition: The reason for this imaginative process is highlighted in the circular movement — anabasis and catabasis form a cycle — circular by definition, and similar to the Kalachakra, the wheel of Jainism.

Here it becomes evident that the Eternal Return is the philosophy of indifference. We return to the absolutely relative worlds of the Asian and indigenous American cosmologies: For Zarathustra, all of the eternities and every instant converge. The prophet takes the Eternal Return as the utmost truth. In his argument, Nietzsche rejected decisively any rectilinear, historical culture, not only the Christian where time is determined by a succession that is clearly differentiated: This Nietzschean critique is the critique of the modern epoch from the position of subjective liberty.

Modernity, established following the Enlightenment, appears overburdened with historical knowledge. Put forward with mythological aspects, but in by any means mythical, Nietzschean thought is, on principle, anti-transcendental.

That said, if time is marked only by eternal revolution, equally all things are in time, in a repetitive succession that evens them out between each other: Nihilism and indifference become identified with each other. With respect to the indigenous American and Asian cosmologies, Nietzsche shares the circularity of time: In the first place, there is no absolute event here; his relativism is nihilistic.

Second, there exists only a will here, that of the man who either wantsor rejects all possible events. It is not like this in Asian and indigenous American cosmologies, impregnated as they are with the absolute nature of all events and infiltrated with a doctrine of salvation, of the liberation of the soul from all material bonds.

Distinct from Nietzschean thought, Asian and indigenous American cosmologies are open to transcendence and, consequently, their literatures are amenable to mythocritical analysis. Rather, it is incumbent on us to present a survey.

In the first instance, it is necessary to ask what induces this cyclical perception of the universe, common to so many cosmologies in every epoch and latitude: Humans are beings of routine.

Along these lines, it is important to know why the Eternal Return is indissociable from other myths appertaining to knowledge: Probing other cultures and ourselves, we are beings of habit who crave understanding of our enigmatic world.

He holds a Ph. He has given talks and seminars in twenty American and European Universities. His most recent publications include the edition on several studies on mythology: The malleability of mythological narratives has been a rich source of creativityand also an index of changes in horizons of imagination and understanding.

The essay explores distinctive features of these processes through selected modern case studies that map how myth can be adapted in different literary and performance genres, including new media.

The third example discusses the adaption of the Heracles story in Greek myth and tragedy for a modern radio and live theatre work by Simon Armitage.

Aesthetic and socio-political forces interact, revealing how the re-imagination that is part of the formation of cultural memory can repress and erase as well as adapting.

Thus the continuing Return to the Greek narratives not only renews their cultural force but also transforms it. Keywords Adaptation. Myth and its histories In both ancient and more modern cultures myth has had a central role in the creative arts and in ways of thinking about the world.

Greek and Roman myth has functioned as an ever-present but malleable and even protean source of narratives and iconic figures, as a touchstone for comparisons, allegories and analogies, and as a nexus between the distant and the familiar and between perspectives on the past and the present. The persistence and changes carried by myth both mark cultural horizons and map their shifts. Myth acts as a conduit, moving across and between the borders of fiction, imagination, religious practices and social norms.

In Greek and Roman antiquity itself, myth was reworked and used in a variety of different ways. Creative engagement with myth spanned literature and visual culture as well as takinga central role in religion and highlighting threads in philosophy, science and politics. Different versions of particular myths moved in and out of prominence. Refigurations of myth signalled shifts and conflicts in ways of looking at the world.

Research data on myth in antiquity provides an infrastructure that also sheds light on modern receptions.

An essential resource is the online Dictionary of Classical Mythology, edited by Rosemary Wright and hosted by the University of Patras. In her Preface to the Dictionary Wright comments that: Different versions of the narratives and genealogies in this material are endemic to the study of the subject, since variations were preserved in the tradition of oral culture and then adapted to the interests of family and city propaganda, the literary contexts of drama and poetry, the evolution of ritual and the expansion of knowledge of the physical and human aspects of the inhabited world….

Repression, erasure and reimagining: The suitors abused the conventions of xenia hospitality , gorging themselves on food and wine and misusing the slaves as servants and as sex objects. The suitors were slaughtered by Odysseus on his return to Ithaca and the female slaves paid with their lives for their enforced relationships with the suitors: Translated by Wilson , In the twentieth century this episode in Homer attained the status of a topos in feminist consciousness.

Walcott portrayed Penelope as forbidding the hanging of her maid, his treatment of the episode brings together the histories of slavery and of gender. That decision may result from his view that attacking a tradition merely lends it authority and thus perpetuates it: In the New World servitude to the muse of history has produced a literature of recrimination and despair, a literature of revenge written by the descendants of slaves or a literature of remorse written by the descendants of masters…The tough aesthetic of the new World neither explains nor forgives history.

It refuses to recognise it as a creative or culpable force. O Angry Ones, O Furies, you are our last hope! We implore you to inflict punishment and exact vengeance on our behalf! Be our defenders, we who had none in life! Echo as a mythological figure who resurfaces in modern literature does not offer a pale imitation, rather can answer back and initiate and explore other reverberations.

The echoes invoked by Atwood can also be read as foreshadowings, soundings that shape in the future how the past is heard. Ancient selection and rearrangement from myth serves to map fields of conflict and change in antiquity. It also informs the analogue approaches identified by Wright. In their turn, modern authors deploy allusions and analogues in order to turn the lens on repressions in their own cultural histories and reflect on these.

Myth, inherently both transplantable and pliable, is a catalyst in that process. Myth can be energised through different genres and media and modern narratives can take as their springboards images and associations rather than or as well as more overt intertextual forms. It is important for two of the main themes of this essay: The myth In ancient mythology, the Gorgons were emblematic of female monsters. Most important of all, the very sight of these grisly visages was said to petrify humans, turning them literally to stone.

The task was supposed to result in his death but Perseus was helped by Athene and Hermes. She was pregnant by Poseidon and the twins she was carrying leapt from her severed neck.

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One of these was Pegasus, the winged horse. Thus the image of Medusa became a significant one in ancient art and could be used to symbolise either threats or defence.

According to whether the blood came from the right side or the left side of Medusa, it could be used either to kill or to revive. Harrison is using the Gorgon as an image, drawing on its general familiarity to create certain expectations in the reader about how those who gaze where they should not are turned to stone.

The first is the mapping of the journeys of the statue of the German Jewish poet Heinrich Heine , which was taken to the island of Corfu in by Elizabeth, Empress of Austria who greatly admired his work. The Gorgon was a favoured decorative motif of the Empress: And this almost charming Gorgon stares From wardrobe doors and boudoir chairs, But unwittingly they laid the track That brought the grimmer Gorgon back. While Europe prepared for the outbreak of war in , Harrison shows the Kaiser: The patient kaiser, piece by piece, prepares the Gorgon for release the Gorgon he let out to glower above us all with baleful power.

Harrison , The ironic double-entendres of those lines modulate into a visceral image of the effects: The twentieth century theme Is played on barbed wire barbitos. Harrison , 71 The word-play on barbitos and the barbed wire that is the emblem both of the trenches of the First World War and of the concentration camps of the holocaust and gulags that it presaged also harks back to the laments of the Gorgon sisters at the death of Medusa.

The catastrophic events of twentieth-century history are also metaphors for the crushing of the human spirit: Harrison , 72 3. In his later film-poem Prometheus , Harrison would make the transport of a statue of Prometheus, the mythical bringer of fire to humankind, a central image in his reflections on the destruction through industrialisation and global pollution of communities from the north of England to Germany and eastern Europe see Harrison , vii.

In The Gaze of the Gorgon, a statue of the German poet Heine takes on the role of narrator, providing a meta-poetic and meta-historical reflection on subsequent events and their multiple resonances. The history of the statue symbolises the attempted destruction by anti-semitism culminating in the Holocaust of the fabric of European culture. The symbiosis of words and images in the film poem not only forges an aesthetic but also choreographs in the senses and minds of viewers and listeners the macabre dance of the suffering of the twentieth century.

The poem ends with a warning: In The Gaze of the Gorgon Harrison exploits the flexibility of the ancient myth and the images associated with it in the modern medium of the film poem.

This enables a combination of still and moving images and verbal dexterity to thread associative rather than intertextual threads through the whole poem. He banishes the threat that viewers and readers will be turned to stone if they face the image by following Perseus and mediating the face of the Gorgon. Thus there is no hiding place for viewers and readers.

In experiencing the force of the aesthetic and humanistic power of the film poem they must acknowledge the repressions and erasures that it uncovers and restores. Recovering and reimagining myth through drama My next case study sketches the career of a mythical narrative that has been mediated by drama.

The foundation myth is that of Heracles. The first is used in the study of ancient cults especially those associated with the alliance between a mythological hero and a particular city that was represented by the foundation of a cult. However, the term can also be extended to indicate the origins of a particular mythological history. I use it in the second sense here although analogies with the first sense may become apparent.

The Heracles myths Heracles16 was said to have born in Thebes, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, the wife of Amphitryon who was in turn a grandson of Perseus. She gave birth to twins, of which Heracles was the son of Zeus and Iphicles the son of her husband. In the narratives, Heracles was portrayed as the greatest of the Greek heroes, so great that after his death he was rewarded for his exploits with immortality among the gods.

Homer portrays him before that apotheosis as an uneasy and terrifying shade in the Underworld: Around his ghost the dead souls shrieked like birds all panic struck…. He glowered terribly, poised for a shot. Around his chest was strapped a terrifying baldric made of gold… I hope the craftsman who designed this scene Will never make another work like this. The best known are the narratives of his probably Twelve Labours.

These were tasks inflicted on him by Eurystheus, the king of Tiryns. Heracles had been sent to serve the king by the Delphic oracle as expiation for killing his children and his wife, Megara, while suffering from insanity inflicted by Hera. On completion of his Labours the promise was that he would be made immortal. However, this did not come about immediately. He eventually died by burning on Mount Oeta, having retreated there in agony following inadvertent poisoning by a robe given him by Deianira in a vain hope to regain his love.

Historical evidence for these includes archaeological material from the site of his supposed death Price and Kearns , The hero cults indicate the porous border between myth and religious practice in the culture of the Greeks and also point to the resonance of the Heracles myths for the values and practices associated with the idea of the hero. Euripides restructures the mythical narrative into two parts.

Heracles returns from his Labours in the nick of time, dispatches the usurper and is accorded a hymn of praise for saving his family and vindicating divine justice. Then in the second part of the play madness strikes and without warning Heracles murders his family, annihilating domestic and moral order and throwing into contention the supposed attributes of the martial hero.

In reordering the mythological biography of Heracles and suppressing both the heroising and the apotheosis of Heracles, Euripides provides a counter-narrative that exposes and problematizes the norms that are depicted in the first half of the play.

Mister Hercules: Armitage recognises that the text was the result of considerable experiment and changes made in the rehearsal process.

He opens by setting out direct questions: What do we mean by hero? What is the greatest atrocity a man can commit? Who can apportion blame to the workings of the human mind, and who has the power to forgive? These are the questions that face any reworking of the Heracles fable.

He removes the details of names and genealogies but retains verbal allusions. This allows him to shift the focus to the deprivations and catastrophes of war and its aftermaths that unite ancient and modern contexts and experiences. The play offers a commentary on the post-traumatic stress disorders that have been increasingly recognised in war-veterans. Unlike the oral tradition behind mythical variations the play does present an established text. Coda The exploration in this essay opens up some questions that also need to be pursued in other areas of research.

In discussing media I focused only on those of the film poem and the staged drama, both of which yielded published texts.

In addition, the relationship between myth and fiction has recently attracted considerable attention McConnell and Hall and for the repression theme within that, Hardwick It seems to me that there are two conclusions developed in this essay that need to be tested in further research.

The first is the duality of perspective involved in considering how repression and retrieval functions in literary and dramatic rewriting of myth. One perspective looks at aspects of the myth that are selected, reshaped and invented. Another perspective looks at how the rewriting opens up or in its turn represses questions that are vital in the receiving context. When those perspectivescollide, they can provide startling insights into both ancient and modern.

The second aspect that I would like to explore in the future results from and is enabled by the first. It involves what I call for want of a better term a reverse ethnography. Revisiting and re-imagining Greek myth and the historical contexts in which it has been received and adapted may help to retrieve the lost voices of the past.

However, most notably, it also enables the lens to be focused on the rewriters and reimaginers and thus on the repressions and taboos that they seek to remedy, those they perpetrate and those they invent. That focus helps to retrieve the lost voices of the more recent past and those of the present that we do not easily hear, or may not want to hear. In encountering a mythology that is not their own and seeking to relate to it in a way that does make it their own, the works by Margaret Atwood, Derek Walcott, Tony Harrison and Simon Armitage shed light on those reversals, testifying to the unique capacity of the arts to bring together aesthetics and cultural politics in ways that heighten receptivity to both the past and the present.

Notes 1. For the significance for world literature of receptions of classical myth across linguistic and cultural boundaries see McConnell and Hall, eds. Documentation of the stage production, including reviews, can be accessed at http: Data base ID For ancient sources relating to the myth, see especially Homer Iliad 5. For discussion of Mesopotamian sources, see Price and Kearns , Gorgons sometimes appear with an apotropaic function in archaic temple pediments. See Homer Iliad Discussed in relation to epic poetry and modern media in Greenwood forthcoming.

Greenwood draws on the insights of Middleton , who pointed out how in a span of 11 Whitbread Prize for Poetry awards winners included classically-orientated work by Michael Longley, Tony Harrison, Seamus Heaney and Ted Hughes. Harrison won the award in for Gaze of the Gorgon. Weil lived from to The essay was first published in French in and in English translation in Heine was born in Dusseldorf and died in Paris.

He was a distant relative of Karl Marx. His lyric poetry was set to music in lieder by Schumann and Schubert. The awful conjunction between the materiality of trenches and their symbolic force in the history of human suffering did not stop with the First World War. Harrison opens a window on to that conflict in the final section of The Gaze of the Gorgon. The Hercules Project, based at the University of Leeds, UK, charts and explains the significance in western culture of the classical hero Hercules from late antiquity via the Renaissance to the present day www.

There are also many references in Pausanias. Heracles was a frequent figure on painted pottery, especially associated with his accoutrements of lionskin, club and bows and arrows. The main appearances of Heracles in tragedy are: Documentation of the performances at the West Yorkshire Playhouse in , including reviews, can be accessed online at: I discuss in more depth the relationship between receptions of classical texts, repression and taboo in Hardwick , forthcoming.

I discuss the theoretical implications of this heightened receptivity in Hardwick , forthcoming. References Atwood, Margaret The Penelopiad: The Play. McClelland and Stewart. Armitage, Simon Mister Heracles: The Last Days of Troy. Bassnett, Susan London and New York: Fischer-Lichte, Erika Oxford University Press.

Greenwood, Emily ; forthcoming. Hall, Edith, and Harrop, Stephe, eds. Theorising Performance: Hardwick, Lorna Translating Words, Translating Cultures. Oxford University Press, Duckworth, Transmission, transgression, transformation. Special issue: Translation in the Theatre, edited by Cristina Marinetti, ICS , Classics in Extremis, edited by Edmund Richardson. Harrison, Tony Theatre Works The Gaze of the Gorgon. Newcastle upon Tyne: Bloodaxe Books. Collected Poems.

Tony Harrison. The Inky Digit of Defiance: Selected Prose , edited by Edith Hall, London: Hobsbawm, Eric, and Ranger, Terence, eds. The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge University Press. March, Jenny Dictionary of Classical Mythology. McConnell, Justine, and Hall, Edith, eds. Middleton, Peter Theory and the Politics of Knowing. New York: Columbia University Press. Oswald, Peter Oberon Books.

Porter, James I. Price, Simon, and Kearns, Emily Walcott, Derek The Odyssey: A Stage Version. Intertextual Perspectives, edited by Gregson Davis. The South Atlantic Quarterly. Durham NC: Duke University Press, Walton, J. Michael and McLeish, Kenneth, eds. Wilson, Emily, tr.

New York and London: Norton and co. Online References: Reception of Classical Texts Project, ed. Hardwick, http: Wright, M. Books include: The element of comparison used will be the same defining anger in Achilles, which we see from the very opening verse of the Iliad.

In principle, the two works do not seem to share any significant points of contact, but a comparison between their respective protagonists shows that similarities do indeed exist, to the extent that both find themselves faced with others who are presented as models and as rivals, with anger defining them in the complex situation of having to choose either assimilation to such models and expectations or breaking free from them. In a way, Tarwater enacts, in a sort of eternal return, the conflict Achilles had to face as a young man for his liberty and status in the world.

She was particularly influenced by the interpretation of the Austrian philosopher Eric Voegelin, to which I will return towards the end of this article. I will begin by noting the structural similarities of the two works on the narrative level, before considering the implications of anger in particular, then finally turning to the family interactions between characters in the management of their anger. Priam, father of his archenemy Hector, will be the one who makes Achilles put aside his anger, forcing him to discover compassion in the face of his own sorrow.

Mason kidnapped Rayber when he was six in order to make him a prophet, although by the age of 14 he had rejected religion, retreating to an ascetic life guided by empiricism and oriented towards the rigorous control of his emotions and affections. Both Tarwater and Achilles have to decide on the meaning of their own lives.

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From the beginning of the novel, the possible calling of Tarwater to become a prophet is repeated by his uncle Mason, but from the outset the boy also seeks to affirm his own freedom above all else.

For this reason he does not consider it his mission to baptize the backwards child of his uncle Rayber or to bury his uncle Mason. Like Achilles, he wants to operate on his own terms. As a result of this, he perceives dangers everywhere, which may explain his utter lack of empathy for others. Tarwater trying to drown the young child, Srigley concludes , , is his best attempt to be the master of his future life, but he gets defeated, as he utters the words of the baptism in that very moment he is drowning the child.

When Mason reminds him that he escaped the control of Rayber, Tarwater feels moved: As Mason explains to him: Also in the case of Tarwater, the fight is one for control, a fight he begins by setting fire to his own house. For Achilles, the dispute arises with King Agamemnon due to a question of honour of precedence and status, seen in itself in the division of the spoils of war , but at the root of this is the question of the value of life in the face of the reality of death, as he says to his mother Thetis: As my life came from you, though it is brief, honour at last from Zeus who storms in heaven I call my due.

He gives me precious little. See how the lord of the great plains, Agamemnon, humiliated me! He has my prize by his own whim, for himself! Translated by R. Fitzgerald The first thing that Tarwater confronts, and which he perceives as the first obstacle to the rest of his life, is to bury his uncle, and it is here that he begins an interior conversation with a stranger -and at the same time someone very close- who encourages him to rebel, reminding him that the estate is going to be inherited by his uncle Rayber.

This conversation prompts the following response: Ownership guarantees a safe space for both Achilles his slave Chryseis and Tarwater over other potential owners, Agamemnon and Rayber.

The practical difficulties of the burial his uncle Mason was very bulky, the soil very hard , and considerations as to what is or is not suitable to do, go hand in hand with the ritual value of a recognition of the reality of the afterlife, and with it the hope for resurrection and the reaffirmation of faith in Christ. In an evidently non-Christian context, the characters of the Iliad all share the belief in the importance of the funerary honouring of the corpses, but Achilles is the only one who acts against this with respect to the corpse of his enemy, Hector, something that the latter foresaw, fearing that if he died at the hands of Achilles his body would be eaten by dogs.

There is an echo in how Tarwater tells Rayber about the unburied body: Here, then, we have the first clear parallel: Achilles is consumed by anger, which demands of him a revenge never satisfied by the death of Patroclus at the hands of Hector. This anger, destructive in nature, also brings with it the death of many others, as foretold in the first two verses of the epic poem: He burns down the house so as to burn the corpse which lies within it, in an act of rebellion that throughout the novel will be replicated in episodes of growing violence.

The fact is that neither Achilles nor Tarwater have the least interest in the political or social implications of their actions: Achilles contemplates impassively the defeat of his side, and does nothing until he is affected personally by the death of his friend Patroclus, and even then he seeks only personal revenge against Hector.

The anger serves both protagonists as a means of further isolating them, not of communion with others. It is clear in both cases that the key element concerns their duties with respect of the dead. Especially significant is a conversation in which Mason reminds his nephew: In the novel, the divine presence is hinted by means of the light of the stars. They seemed to be holes in his skull through which some distant unmoving light was watching him.

The presence of the divine is far more explicit in the Iliad. By considering the anger of these characters, we are not focusing so much on the expression of an inner frustration, but more on the external perception of the frustration at a desired outcome which is not fulfilled.

It has social consequences, in that it supposes the breakdown of that which guarantees coexistence, beginning with the system of the distribution of awards, the exchange of wealth and also of honours. Characterization of internalised anger in both characters: The same can be seen of Achilles: His fate is either death now in this case with the counterpart of an undying fame or death years later; but death it is in either case Il.

What Tarwater perceives in Mason, apart from this certainty of life in real freedom that transpires, is the hunger that Mason has for Christ and which he, Tarwater, does not understand: He does not perceive this hunger, but fears it as something that will ensue even though not desired, through something greater than what is represented in something that is hidden in his blood.

For this reason he avoids thinking about it. Tarwater desires a divine calling uncontaminated by earthly things, not the kind of eternal communion which his uncle talks about. Thus, even as he tries to dig the tomb, he reaffirms himself in his freedom to act: And it is the voice of the stranger which is tinted with anger: The highpoint of the anger will come when Francis drowns Bishop, as a release from the weight of the responsibility of baptizing him, with which he expects to seal his future in absolute freedom and solitude.

Such strangeness of character and lack of social skills is greatly at odds with Achilles, the son of a goddess and an outstanding character in all respects. But what does indeed unite them is stubbornness, a persistence in defending the absence of ties or limits, a state to which they both aspire, although there hangs above both of them a fate which they reject.

This is repeated at the end of the novel, when Tarwater, having been raped, returns to Powderhead and everything comes to a state of completion: He threw himself to the ground and with his face against the dirt of the grave, he heard the command. The words were as silent as seeds opening one at a time in his blood. These are hard and intense expressions, in which the threat is first perceived, but is finally united with the love of God as the father of mercy. It is this mercy that Tarwater recognizes in the end.

The case of Achilles is similar: Thus, the victim requests of the executioner —reminding him of his absent father— an act of mercy, as it were.

Here resides the greatness of the Iliad: Think me more pityful by far, since I have brought myself to do what no man else has done before —to lift to my lips the hand of one who killed my son. Now in Achilles the evocation of his father stirred new longing, and an ache of grief. Then both were overborne as they remembered: It is an anger that he shares with his uncles, in those complex relationships between them that are continuously repeated.

For example, when Mason baptized the baby, Tarwater, at a moment in which Rayber had left the cradle unattended, shows a reaction of an insulting joy, while that of Rayber is first one of being deceived, then of anger: Not even angry at first, just hacked. Later on, when Rayber recalls how at 14 he went to see Mason, his anger is described very graphically: It is an anger associated with resentment, in considering that Mason, rather than saving him, has destroyed his life. In the case of Tarwater, his anger arises above all in respect of Bishop and the responsibility of baptising him: It is again a question of the control he seeks over his own actions.

This scene forms part of a long flashback ending in a return to the present in which Tarwater is with Meeks, at the moment when for the first time in his life Tarwater sees and uses a telephone.

When he realises who is at the other end of the phone, the moment is described like this: It is a subtle anticipation of the subsequent baptism by immersion. This might seem a perfectly natural reaction, arising from his instinct for survival, yet it does not happen later on when Tarwater attempts the same thing.

Indeed, in this case there is an express action by Bishop of touching him and, as the narrator explains, of guiding him towards the water: It illustrates that Bishop wants and needs to be baptised. In all this there is a running rivalry which unleashes anger.

Thus, Ciuba argues that it is a form of glory sought at the cost of others and with the aim of keeping it forever. The boy may seem like an anti-prophet, but he is immersed in the same kind of violence as that of his great-uncle: We are presented, thus, with a triangle in which one of the elements wants to beat another through comparing himself to the third. At this moment comes the revelation that he will have to baptize Bishop: Then the revelation came, silent, implacable, direct as a bullet.

He did not look into the eyes of any fiery beast or see a burning bush. He only knew, with a certainty sunk in despair, that he was expected to baptize the child he saw and begin the life his great-uncle had prepared him for. He knew that he was called to be a prophet and that the ways of his prophecy would not be remarkable. Suddenly he knew that the child recognized him, that the old man himself had primed him from on high that here was the forced servant of God come to see that he was born again.

The little boy was sticking out his hand to touch him. Rayber tries to mediate, and says he will get used to Bishop, but Tarwater does not give way: It was like a shout that had been waiting, straining to burst out.

In the next chapter, when Rayber follows him at night, the attitude is the same: It is the same anger that the old man Mason provoked in him: The tension between the two of them is the same as the one that exists between Mason and Rayber.

Rayber also attributed his own anger and affliction to a genetic problem, a family inheritance, thus something carried in the blood: The affliction was in the family. It lay hidden in the line of blood that touched them, flowing from some ancient source, some desert prophet or pole-sitter, until, its power unabated, it appeared in the old man and him and, he surmised, in the boy.

Those it touched were condemned to fight it constantly or be ruled by it. The old man had been ruled by it. He, at the cost of a full life, staved it off. What the boy would do hung in the balance.

In his case it manifests itself especially during the discourse of the girl preacher, in which he wants to be recognized as an innocent victim before Christ, the Savior who survived the massacre of the innocents. The stranger who converses in his mind has already encouraged him to drown Bishop, insinuating that he will only end the obsession with the child by killing him.

Go, he wanted to shout. Get your damn impudent face out of my sight! Go to hell! Go baptize the whole world! Rayber promises Tarwater salvation in rationality and explains that they have a common compulsion, something that Tarwater rejects, because he is sure that he can find release from it whenever he wants.

It is then that he takes Bishop in a boat. After sleeping a while, Rayber awakes to realise that Tarwater has simultaneously baptised and drowned the child.

A little later, when a truck driver takes Tarwater far away, the latter recounts his wishes for life: The anger that he hopes to have dominated by violence will find him once more, this time in the brutal rape he suffers, in which he discovers the presence and effects of evil in himself.

And Kroeker , adds: In her copy of the book she underlined just one phrase: However, it is not difficult to see how it might have served as a template for the character of Tarwater or, since she was already well into writing the novel by then, it might have had a considerable influence on the final formulation of his character.

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In Achilles there is, prior to anger, a void: The specific wrath that precipitates the events of the Iliad must be distinguished from the void, the blankness of which it is a manifestation. The nature and source of this isolating iciness [from his comrades] is, then, more closely circumscribed by scraps of self-analysis when Achilles reflects on the alternatives of action in face of his fate. The meaning of the divine revelation as a personal obsession can be discerned perhaps most clearly in the fact that Achilles is the only one among the princes who toys with the idea of leaving the war and returning home.

Odd as this may sound, Achilles is afraid of death to the point of openly considering the possibility of desertion. He is ardently in love with life. Voegelin , However, anger can also help Achilles attain another level of order: Functioning within an established order, the cholos, as an emotion, will supply the force that will resist injustice and restore just order. Voegelin , 90 It is the death of his friend Patroclus that finally makes him recover order, when he sees his alter ego dead: The coincidences in their characters are indeed notable, in the difficult orientation which both men seek for their lives, and especially in the incidences of their anger, with evident social consequences, most clearly in their refusal to perform funerary rites on the dead and their paralysing inaction, but also with respect to the similar way in which they both escape this anger, thanks to a simple demonstration of human intimacy, the mere act of touching the hand.

Conclusions I think it is possible to affirm now that there is a clear parallelism between Achilles, a young Greek warrior, and Tarwater, a backwoods young prophet-to-be.

One can consider how fruitful the connections can be in a mythical paradigm where the notion of eternal return of basic human problems revolves. References Bieber Lake, Christina U of Tennessee Press, Ciuba, Gary M. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, Fitzgerald, Robert, tr.

The Iliad. Violence and the Sacred. Patrick Gregory. Johns Hopkins University Press. Huelin, Scott Johansen, Ruthan Knechel Kroeker, P. Travis Muellner, Leonard C. The Anger of Achilles. Menis in Greek Epic. Cornell University Press. The Habit of Being. Edited by Sally Fitzgerald. Farrar, Strauss and Giroux. Collected Works. The Library of America. Palmieri, David Srigley, Susan University of Notre Dame Press. Voegelin, Eric Order and History. His fields of research are Greek Literature Greek epics, oracles and prophecies, origins of history as a genre, mythology in literature , Greek Fragments has edited some fragmentary Greek historians for the Brill New Pauly and the Classical Tradition in Literature, having published studies on several Spanish authors fray Luis de Leon, Clarin, Galdos and also on Renaissance transmission of classical authors and comparative literature.

The first three examples, which are taken from texts in different genres from the second half of the nineteenth century, show signs of an incipient mythopoeia. Following this introduction to the topic, attention is turned to works that appeared in the first half of the twentieth century, especially those that belong to its second decade. One critical moment in the Cretan myth of Ariadne is singled out for close analysis as an illustration of the modernist preoccupation with——and the continuing vitality of——myths from ancient Greece.

In this case study, the focus is on the interaction between sea and shore as having the force of a liminal charge in which the sacred emerges from the profane. Keywords Ariadne, Lord Jim, T. Eliot, de Chirico, personal myth, sea journey. The Return to Origins Myth, as an aspect of the archaic mind, is intrinsic to all cultures. It exercises invisible control in matters of the imagination and offers a counterbalance to the rationalism that is claimed on behalf of secular institutions.

Its order is a symbolic order which is self-renewing. Narratives of myth tend to operate at the level, not of cognition, but of recognition. They respond less to the linear imperative of progress than to a reflexive demand for a return to origins.

The return to origins, the eternal return, may be understood in various ways. It is a recapitulation in which each re-enactment in ritual, each re-telling in a literary work, each re-presentation in the world of art is at the same time a confirmation of a fundamental belief and a renewal of a sacred bond. Besides recapitulations that are the products of human agency, the repetition of a primordial event may take the form of a natural occurrence. A recurrence in nature is indicative of a correlative impetus in the supernatural world and vice versa.

The belief may be fanciful, as with Aeolus, and serve the purpose of entertainment or it may take on a religious meaning and strike at the heart of a civilisation as in the Biblical story of the flood and its aftermath.

Yet, trivial or terrifying, it establishes a tie between the present and the primordial through a fusion of the natural and the supernatural. Myth offers an alternative to a scientific or rational account. Carl Jung regarded the aim of psychic development, in which myth plays a fundamental role, as one of arriving at a rounded awareness of the self through a process of individuation.

In a passage that suggested the title for this article, he wrote: His personal myth was constellated from memories, dreams and reflections. It grew as much out of fantasies as out of mythologies. The psychoanalytical concept of a personal myth shares many qualities with its literary equivalent, to which W. It is only the stubborn and the self- deluded who believe in and insist upon a linear path through life.

The supernatural is anchored in the natural and it draws upon the visible world for the enunciation of mysteries that involve gods and goddesses, hybrid monsters and semi-divine heroes and heroines. One of its most fertile domains is the sea and the sea voyage, for it is through the medium of water that flux and reflux are most closely associated with the individual as humanity loses contact with terra firma.

PEER Who are you? PEER Stand aside! For the fells here are wide. PEER tries another route, but runs into something Who are you? Can you say the like? Ibsen , ll.

Pdf quarentena amorosa

Self-knowledge calls for renunciation, recapitulation, and recognition before the threshold of awareness may eventually be crossed. In the course of his picaresque life, Peer Gynt undertakes several voyages and meets many fantastic creatures that range from troll to sphinx to the spectre of death itself.

The end of the journey is self-realisation. Its trajectory is recursive, returning upon itself, like the sea in its encounter with the land at full tide. Arnold , For the Victorian poet, listening to the repetitive and melancholic sound, the moment calls up an image: It is, moreover, not merely shared.

The examples from Ibsen and Arnold take us to the brink of mythology. Herman Melville confronts it directly in Moby Dick. Consider the subtleness of the sea; how its most dreaded creatures glide under water, unapparent for the most part, and treacherously hidden beneath the loveliest tints of azure. Consider also the devilish brilliance and beauty of many of its most remorseless tribes, as the dainty embellished shape of many species of sharks. Consider, once more, the universal cannibalism of the sea; all whose creatures prey upon each other, carrying on eternal war since the world began.

Consider all this; and then turn to the green, gentle, and most docile earth; consider them both, the sea and the land; and do you not find a strange analogy to something in yourself? For as this appalling ocean surrounds the verdant land, so in the soul of man there lies one insular Tahiti, full of peace and joy, but encompassed by all the horrors of the half-known life.

Melville , His recommendation, or rather his injunction, is prompted by a sense of self- preservation: Push not off from that isle, thou canst never return! The emphases in the various genres are quite different, but in each case the sea is made to stand for the destructive element that is necessary for subsequent self-realisation. Toward the end of the Victorian era, as the nineteenth century gave way to the twentieth and Sigmund Freud was at work preparing his Interpretation of Dreams for publication, Joseph Conrad placed before the reading public a penetrating fictional exploration of the character of the romantic dreamer.

A man that is born falls into a dream like a man who falls into the sea. If he tries to climb out into the air as inexperienced people endeavour to do, he drowns——nichtwahr? I tell you! In the destructive element immerse.

He spoke in a subdued tone, without looking at me, one hand on each side of his face. Related titles. The Innovators: Elon Musk: Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta. The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America. The Prize: This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate. Jump to Page. Search inside document. More From Candido Volmar. Candido Volmar. William Santana Santos. Gladys Cabezas Pavez.

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Deyve Redyson. Kadu Martins.