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Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children: The ME Book Teaching Ivar Lovaas, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of California, Los Angel with . Children: The "ME" Book, by O. Ivar Lovaas pdf Teaching Developmentally " ME" Book, pdf O. Ivar Lovaas Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children. Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children: The Me Book O. Ivar Lovaas Adults who have undergone ABA as described in this book as children consider.
Hall, Bewcrrd Schedulee you need to keep in positives. Your fingerprompt may have overshadowed or blocked his responseto the teachingcue the circle. Positivepracticeoccurswhen the offender practicesthe appropriate behavior. Once the child misses out on rewards. More Details You needto hansfer isshownin Table for durationrecording A sample datasheet abscissa.
Autism Network Resources for Physicians — home.
Association for Behavior Analysis — www. Autism Society of America — www. BehavioralandCommunicationApproaches Provides an overview and comparison of treatment approaches and allows you to access local ASA Chapters' sites. Families for Early Autism Treatment — www. National Library of Medicine — www. This site provides information on thousands of articles on autism among other topics.
Just type "autism" in the search field. The Schafer Autism Report — home. Jan 08, Marilyn Robarts rated it really liked it. This was one of the first resources that I collected when my son was diagnosed back in Great book.
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A negative 1. Make the instructions b. Reward approximations and Prompt Fading 2. On a larger. Psychological punishment. Punishmentmay also mean displaced aggression. Areasof Research the use of physicalpunishIt will seemtotallyinappropriateto many people to even suggest persons. One involved. Many parents will punish a child. How can it even be suggested that an adult punish a men' disabled ment with developmentally You may also want to refer to the chapter on punishand Application In fact.
Jrls as they can be used to stop self-injurious behaviors. Some developmentally retardedpersons. In both instances it is criticalthat the eventbe shown to decrease behavior. He has been institutionalized for most of his life becausehe could not be managedby his parents. One can alsobe virtuallycertainthat this person will not be very popular among the teachingpersonnelin an institutionand will probablybe rnovedto a lessoptimalward.
It is a horriblesightto seeaZ5-year-oldadult smearinghis own feceson his body. To usean exheme example. If this behaviorcontinuedhe would die.
Some persons may find some or all of theseeventsneutral or rewardingand. At leasttwo kinds of eventsservethat purpose: Self-destructiveness is one suchbehavior. Other children have certainproblem behaviors that. These behaviors. He was retarded and he had "autistic features. Even if punishmenthelps to raisea normal child. One of the problemsthat facesparentsand teachers of developmentally disabledchildrencenterson what behaviorsare so seriously maladaptive that they warrantthe useof physicalaversives.
Most often in the psychological punishmentis definedas an event. BeIorewe proceedfurtherin this discussion. Keep in mind. He will not die from fecessmearing. His head and facewere f ull of scartissue from self-inflicted wounds. This is a difficult criterion to satisfy.. The child will benefit shopping. If an adultcontemplates and summarized below. Build alternatiuebehauiors. The child is "out of it" when he self-stimulates.
Thesebehaviors suchbehaviors You may attemptto suppress next chapter. Theserulesarespelled the useof aversives. Particularlyserious Some children are so aggressive is the situationin which the life of a younger siblingis threatened.
Never punish unlessyou can also teach the child some better way to expresshimself after you have stopped his disruptivebehavior.. Make sure that alternativeshave been tested as to their effectiveness.
For other setsof behaviors. Think of punishmentin this Phystccl Punishment Few people know what tyrantssome retardedor psychotic childrencan be or how their tyrannicalbehavior isolates them from normal envirIf a childis too do not toleratea greatdealof aggressive onments. Such behaviors to what the teachersaysand does. State hospitalsare full of children who could have made it on the outside had it not been for the fact that they were allowed to develop self-defeating behaviors such as excessiveaggression.
In mostrestaurants. Such seriouslydisruptivebehaviormay necessitate going joining out. Teachers behaviorin their classrooms. Avoid situation specificity that occurswhen the child suppresses a behaviorin the presenceof those who punish. Do not use it without supervision. Keep records. If the milder aversives don't work.
If you are going to punish. Auoid prolonged use. At the other extreme. Early manifestations are weaker than the later to stop weak behaviors ones. In all of theseproceduresit is very important to "collectdata. If you decideto punish severalbehaviors. The child with the damaged kidneys in the example above had been carefully and inadvertently shaped by poorly informed but well meaning personsto injure himself.
Childrenare not born with problem behaviors. Another child might hateto throw smallbeanbagsbackand forth betweenhimselfand the teacher. Then try time-out placing him in isolation contingent on the undesirable behavior.
Technically speaking. Be exha carefulthat the child's disruptivebehavior doesnot get some unintendedpayoff. These problemsare describedin more detail in later chapters.
Over a week. Punisheorly behauiors. Try nonphysicolpunish ment t'irst. To facilitatea generalization Use auersiues transfer of the learningbackinto the community. A child may adapt to aversives and they will losetheir effectiveness. It serves to stop some disruptive behaviorlong enoughso that the teacheror parentcan buildsome constructive behavior to replace the interfering behavior.
Just asa good teachercan find many waysto rewardher child. Toke one behauiorat a time ond ocrossenuironments. This introduction to aversivesmay give rise to considerableconcern. That'syour "baseline. There is always a real possibilitythat you may be making mistakeswhen you use aversives. Without a doubt.
Probablyin the long run. This includes a "peer review" by other professionals who have experience with aversives. Personswho are not responsive professional to their colleagues should not use aversives.
A personmay ask whetherone can be a usefulteacher disabled or parentto developmentally childrenwithoutusingphysicalaversives. Aversivesactuallyplay a very minor role in our programs.
Get somet'eedback. Some children are so responsiveto negativefeedbackthat even a minor conection like saying "No" has a major effect. This book is really about teachingand growth. We use them to help the child stop or diminish certainbehaviorsso he can be placed in a teachingsituation. If you can't tolerate the criticismthat may be part of honest feedback. Your heatment has to produce a change in that baseline.
Peerreview does not eliminate those mistakes. Record keeping is discussedin Chapter 4. The aversives are generallynot used after the first week or month. Recent research Ackerman. We recommendthat you avoid beingtrappedin somesentimentaland populartheory thatprecludesrationalinvestigation of alternatives.
Tomorrow we will know more about how to raise children. Phystccl Punlshnent n. This has led some people to Their tanhums may interfereseriouslywith their learning of more appropriate behaviors. In other casesit can go on for hours on a nearly daily basisfor literally physical restraintsor sedativemedication.
Sometimesthe tantrum is short-lived and lasts for only a few secondsor minutes. The characteristics ter. Sometimes a child may be quite unapproachablewhen he throws a tantum.
Many or most disabledchildren are very and tantrumvulnerableand nonaggressive. Your child's tantrums may be minor. The tantrums become years. It is a sadstorythat the very samepersonswho intended to help the self-destructive child probablydid him more harm than good. Let us briefly summarize what we know about tanhums. In any case. One cannot educatea child who scareshis teacheror has to be drugged and reshainedto qui.
In the children's they havea defenseit must be saidthat they probablythrow tantrumsbecause difficulttime understanding to their what is going on. The tantrum is usuallythe child'sresponseto frustration. We all experience frustrationover not understanding.
If you can put up with all the screaming and commotion and if the child doesn'thurt himselfor you too much. It is often the casethat. This is known as extinction.
You have to teach him more appropriateways to deal with your demands. The tantrumsand aggression can be a response frustabon at not understanding. Their affectionand concern. Children are often masters at conhollingtheir parentsand other adultsthrough such strong and primitivebehavior.
Extinction is sometimes hard on the adult and the child because the child will continueto aggress. Hence the need for you to take conhol of the situation. But that should it is their of communicating they excusefor you to let them continue with their tantrums. It is exhemelyimportantin controllingtantrums. The tantrumsbecomestrongerif you give in removedemands or make a lot of fussabout them. Thereis compellingevidence that by givingthe child attentionand concern.
The tantrumswill probablygo away if you ignorethem. If the tantrums are initially higgered by frushation. It is a good idea to catchthe tanhum early. In effectthey decideon how their dailyroutineshouldbe arrangedand what the rules should be. Time-out turningaway or placingthe child in isolation is sometimesan easyway to handle the tantrums in that the teacherdoes not have to put up with allthe commotion. Spankingis sometimesa remarkablyeffectiveway to stop a tantrum eventhough the child may hurt himselfmuch more during the tantrum than you can by spankinghim.
The stimulation themselves. He is thensentto a manyadults and he frightens on the heador bitehimself himself a very fine placeand p"rhup. Few peoplerealizethat wherehe may vegetate hospital like a state him out of keep and keep him learning. Stay frighten isthis: In fact.. Gradually demands. The rocking.
Self-stimulatory is low' Apparently behavior arehigh. That's good sitting" and immediately inthatdelaymaybe hisrewardfor thetantrumandwill keepthetantrumshong. Self-stimulatory as for 3 to 5 seconds childself-stimulate thechild.
He probably The childmay look likehe is insane. He is admirably you. As far as we can tell. Like otherpeople. It appears in self-stimulation. Muchto our surprise. It may be that this lack of motivationis causedby the failuresand frustrations they alreadyhave experienced in such learning. This means that if the child self-stimulates when the teacheris talking to him whenshe wantshim to pay attentionto her.
At'ter Use exaggerated youknow that he has mastered the task. The general rule is this: The rewards derived from self-stimulationare often shonger than the rewards the teacher can offer. This is important. As soon as he stopsthe self-stimulation. Many of the other nuancesand fine pointsassociated with succeeding and not succeeding often passby the retardedchild.
If gazingis suppressed. Insteadof relying on "natural" or "inhinsic" motivation. The teachermay let the child self-stimulate afterhe hasbehavedcorrectly. The suppressionof one form of self-stimulatory behavior may lead to the increasein another.
The use of rewards and punishmenthas been discussed in Chapter 1. The need for self-stimulatory behaviors may also provide an ideal basisfor buildingplay and athletics. It is a sign of a good teacherthat she can find waysto motivatea slow studentto learnin as normal a way as possible. The taskin this caseis to help the child developa form of self-stimulation that interferes minimallywith learningand that appearssociallymore acceptable than some other form of self-stimulation.
Self-stimulationdecreasesor blocks responsiveness to outside stimulation. Thin the rewardsslowlyfor newly learnedbehaviors. What we have had to do. The rewardshouldconsumeminimaltime. Self-stimulation is like drugs: This possibility is discussed laterin thisbook. BcrsicInlormction 2. The advantage the teaching situation. In other words.
Oncethe valueof tokens somebehavioryou are tying to teachhim. Don'texpect that you cancompete against Therefore. He ispunishing himself don'tpunish himfor failure. This is so because stimulate his self-stimulation and driftingoff feeltoo good for him. He hasplentyof All you haveto do isto teachhim thosebehaviors thatgivehim a "handle"on hisanximotivation. You may beginby havinghim giveyou a for you givehim tokensasa reward isestablished. The childcan losetokenshe to usetokensfor discipline It is.
TV viewing. You If a childalready isanxious about failure. Remember or minimizing extraneous motivation: The tokenscan laterbe cashed time. If he is to self-stimulate.
Stillthey showsomeof triedto makethe chitdren We havesometimes problems. Tokens suchas poker chips are used as Tokens or watchinga TV show. It is possible attention pay Poor at all. One day a substitute teachertook over the class. But again.
Supposeyou show a picture of a man to a normal two. But he may alsooverwhich may have shape. Consideranotherexampleillustrating A particular teachertaughther childrento identify transfer generalization of learningacross situations. He may focuson one channel child seeswhat the teacheris doing.
We do know that such overselective attentionoccurs"betweenthe senses. When childrenare taught to imitatesounds. Other examplesof such overselection relateto the use of prompts. The followingexamplesillustrate overselection. The The children's attentionalproblems may lie in an overlynarrow attentionto externalcues. In a sense. They overselected with attentionmay interfere how overselective the auditoryones. It seemedthat they part and had learnedto tell the boy from the girl by looking at the shoes or some equallyinsignificant ignoringthe rest of the figure.
The childrenhad overselected detailsof the teachingsituationand this interfered with their transferor generalization of that learningto new situations.
They have overfocused or ouerselected their attention. Be that as it may.
A child will not understand much language unless he can focuson severalauditorycuesgiven sirnultaneously. Children the more retardedones show more overselective attentionthan children with a very low mental age with higher mental ages. When this situation was examined more closely. We taughtdevelopmentally disabled autistic childrento tellthe dif or girl f. The sameproblem or. When the secondteacheralsobeganto gesture certain sameway as the firstteacher.
He may not haue seen the circle. The question is. You then sayto him. Be on the lookout for accidentalprompts. They have to learn to do so if they are going to survive. Rememberthat the children euentuallylearn to use prompts and to "drop" them that is. Once the child misses out on rewards. We offer the followingsuggestions: Try to minimizethe extracuesin the teachingsituation.
For instance. Don't reward the child when he getsthe right answerwith prompts present. They will even detectsmallmovementsof your eyeswhen you are visually fixatingon the right answer.
But it takestime. They can learn to pay attentionto more and more cues. Children are very good at discoveringunintended prompts. Start with easy learning first. Withhold reward for promptedanswers.
Later "fade" out this extreme differenceto one of more appropriatesize. Supposeyou placetwo cards. If you don't. He respondsto your prompt and he pointsto the circle. Thereis some evidence that unrewardedtrialslead the child to overcomesome of his overselective responding.
One way to help thisalong is for you nof to prompt. There is some evidencethat the child will be able to use a prompt. Only reward him when he getsthe right answerwithoutprompts. Your fingerprompt may have overshadowed or blocked his responseto the teachingcue the circle.
Behcvior Chcrccierislics At other times. When you first startout. How Long Should You Record? Each each self-destructive because that is. Samplerecordings are. Samplingmeansthat you do not need to record allthe time. Sometimesyou may have to recordfor 10 minutesevery hour throughout to record for only 10 minutesat a specifichour during the the day. How much you need to record dependson a numberof conditions.
The different Two typesof bedifferentmethodsof measurement. If the behavioris decreasing. In general. In time sampling. If the behaviorstaysthe same. How to Record You need a counter that can be reset like those used to keep golf scores.
Sometimesa behavior has all but disappeared after a week. The daysthat are usedto determinea rate against which to measurethe effectiveness of the treatmentare calleda baseline: Changedependson many factors. How Long to Record belore Treqtment Begins? Treatment must startright away if the problem behaviorsare so acutethat they endangerthe child'slife. If the behavior undergoes extinction. Set up a chart seeTable4.
These datacanthenbeaveraged overthe day. If you put a checkmarkin the yescolumnwhenever he isself-stimulating. Becordlng Behcvior 0 -l 0 l t r0 l s l Thesesecond intervals are then dividedinto a periodfor observation say.
You mayalsowantto usea tablelike the one described earlierin our discussion behavior see of the graphingof self-destructive Table One easyand inexpensive "aid" in makingthiskind of observation is to dictate the timeinterplay valsinto a taperecorder. Chart lor recordlng self-rtlmulctory bchcvlor Child's name: Time of recording: Kind of behavior: Minute I Seconds Yes No 2. In thisway you will have four opportunities every minute to record whethera behavioroccurredor 40 opportunities if you observe the child for 10 minutes.
A sampledatasheetis shownin Table If there is shong behavior and lessagreementon recordingsof self-stimulatory self-destructive ambiguouskinds' If in more the and leave out hy to define the behavior more concretely.
Whatyou needto do. The data from the first observerare then compared with the data from the second observer. Time of onset Duration Comment dctc 9: You may want to from the Department of Psychologyor Schoolof Educaconsultan expert on behavioralmeasurements tion at your local college.
In behavior. Tcblc l The observationsare said to be unreliableif observers general will be considerableagreementin recording there conclusionscan be drawn from their data. You can test the reliabilityof the observer'srecording by having a second observerindependently record his observationof the same behavior concurrently with the first observer. Hall I has written a usefulbooklet on how to record behavior. Recording procedures have become relatively complex and represent a rather sophisticated area of research.
You needto hansfer isshownin Table for durationrecording A sample datasheet abscissa. Durqtton recordlng-Scmple cheot Child's name: Kinds of behavior: Date Ian. Ackerman, A. The role of punishment in the heatment of preschool agedautistic children: Effects and side effects. Unpublished doctoraldissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, It's effects on humanbehauior. Lawrence, Kan.: Honig Ed. Areasof research ond application. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, The ehmination of autistic Speciclty Books self-stimulatory behavior by overcone clion.
J ournal Baker,B. Stepsto independence: A skills of Applied Behauior Anolysis,,6, Chamlor Hall, R. Behauior management series. Lawrence, paign,Ill.: Foxx, R. Toilettraining the reHarris, S. Behavioral suptarded: A programlor day and nighttime indepenpression of seriously disruptive behavior in psychotic dent toileting. Research Press, patients: Psychological Bulletin, , 85, Fredericks, H.
Assessing uerely hondicapped. Monmouth, Ore.: Inshuctional and training the generalized useof behavior modifiDevelopment Corporation, Journalof AppliedBe- Henderson, S. Step-by-step dresshauior Anolysis, , 70, I Bellevue, Wash.: Edmark Associates, Lovaas, O.
Manipulation of self- Huffman,J. Talk withme. Bellevue, Wash,: Edmark destruction in three retardedchildren. JournaloJ Associates, Educoting childrenwith leorning and problems. The outr'stfc child: Irvington Publishers, Bqslc Leqrnlng Theory Vol. Principles of leorning: From laboratory fies. Elmsford, N. Pergamon Press. Reading, Mass.: