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Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Cliffs Toefl Preparation anesi.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. TOEFL GRAMMAR REVIEW/ Семашко Л.А. Учебное пособие по . TOEFL Structure and Written Expression Practice Tests included in Part IV will allow.


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Show More. In addition to immersing yourself in English through these methods, use this book. John read a book. I myself believe that the proposal is good. They will work in the lab tomorrow. We hurt ourselves playing football. What was Jill driving?

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Cliff pdf toefl

Cliffs toefl book 1. He has been involved in the field of English as a Second Language since he began work on Project Editor: Billie A. Although Mike Special Help: Arielle Carole Mennelle meetings. If you purchased this book without a cover, you should be aware that this book is stolen prop E.

Hillsdale Blvd. Suite erty. All rights reserved. No part of this book, including interior design, cover design, and icons, may be reproduced ortransmitted in any form, by any means electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publisher.

Library of Congress Control Number: For resellerinformation, including discounts and premium sales, please call our Reseller Customer Service department at For consumer information on foreign language translations, please contact our Customer Service department at , fax , or e-mailrights idgbooks. For sales inquiries and special prices for bulk quantities, please contact our Order Services department at or write to the address above. For press review copies, author interviews, or other publicity information, please contact our Public Relations department at or fax For authorization to photocopy items for corporate, personal, or educational use, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA, or fax All other trademarks are the propertyof their respective owners.

IDG Books Worldwide is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. I only hope that you find it as helpfulas students have found the two earlier texts I wrote. I very much appreciate thefeedback I have received from students and teachers over the years on the originaltexts. I am particularly thankful to Joan Friedman for all the work thatshe and her staff did in the actual production, revision, and completion of the textitself. My father-in-law, Dr. Manuel Lopez Figueras, of Merida, Venezuela, again helpedme write a new passage about his specialty, lichens.

My friend Dr. Arnold Vera, aphysician specializing in endocrinology in Ormond Beach, Florida, assisted megreatly in writing the passage about diabetes. Nowadays, I am a lawyer with a busy law office. I very much appreciate thosemembers of my staff who were sometimes affected by my work on the book, espe-cially when they had to handle the legal work for clients because I was locked inmy room trying to meet a deadline.

Sheilaregularly had to fax and overnight documents. Tracy even stepped in to draw fig-ures for me on short notice. And Steve Rahm has done a magnificent job creatingour toeflcourse. Without information fromthem, we would all be guessing about what to present to the readers. I was even receiving and returning text via e-mail while on a cruisewith the family in the Carribean. And most of all, thanks to you, the reader, for choosing this book.

I hope that youwill find it useful and I welcome your feedback. Visit the Web site and e-mail mewith your comments and questions. Table of Contents Preface.

Table of Contents Phrasal Verbs. But Also. Table of Contents Prepositions. Table of Contents Part B. Table of Contents Practice Test 5. Thorough preparation leads to better scores, so you need to make the most of your available study time.

This guide is the most complete, precise, and accurate of all study products available. In keeping with the fine tradition of CliffsNotes, this guide was prepared for you by an expert in the field of teaching English as a Second Language ESL.

The strategies, techniques, and materials presented in this book have been tested over many years. Part I of this book gives you basic information about the TOEFL test, as well as a successful overall approach to taking the test.

Part II includes complete analyses of each part of the test, including question types, test-taking techniques and strategies, and a patterned plan of attack for each question type. Part III gives you more detailed information and practice items for each of the sections of the test, including a detailed review of item types, items tested, prob- lem areas, and sample TOEFL test questions.

Part IV contains six full-length practice tests, very similar in content and difficulty to the actual TOEFL test, as well as answer keys and scoring sheets for the prac- tice tests. This book also contains a detailed table of contents so you can easily find the area of the text with the information you need.

The more time you have, the better. While this book is a great tool for learn- ing English, you will learn the language more completely by reading, listening, watching television and movies, writing, and surrounding yourself with as much English as you can.

To the StudentStudy English slowly and methodically. Allow yourself time to return to the sections of the review that you have not fully understood. Test of W ritten English. Practice writing essays on the sample topics provided. Take the other five practice tests in the same way.

Strictly observing time allotments. Replay the cassette and listen carefully for questions you missed. Fill out the Analysis-Scoring Sheet to pinpoint your mistakes. Use the cross-referenced answer keys. Continue your study of the review material given in Part III. Begin your study of the review material in P art III. Learn the techniques of a Successful Overall Approach. R epeat this process with Practice Tests 2. Carefully study the Analysis of Exam A reas for each of the three test sections.

While referring to each item of Practice Test 1. Check your answers and analyze your results. Listening Comprehension Part A: Short conversations.

Time limits may change from time to time. The conversations are between two people. You must find the answers to the questions in the test book. Section 3: Reading Comprehension You must read selections in the test book and answer questions based on what is stated or implied in the readings. Part C: Oral readings. Part B: Longer conversations. You must choose the best way to complete the sentence in formal written English.

These may be about any subject. Sentences have four words or phrases underlined. Section 2: Structure and Written Expression Part A: Multiple choice answers to complete sentences.

You must choose the one underlined part that is incorrect in formal written English. After each conversation. There are several questions about each reading or conversation. You must find the answer to the question in the test book. You must be able to understand enough English to make good grades in com petition with native English-speaking students. It is a service offered by these programs to their students but is an actual T O E FL given in previous Friday and Saturday administrations. Rem em ber that admission to a school is not the end of the battle.

The score which is acceptable to a given school also depends on the regulations for th at particular school. The format is basically the same. You can register for an ITP administration only at an institution at which the test is given and only if you are a student at the 4.

Test of English as a Foreign Language. Some schools require You should check with the individual institution regarding the acceptability of this adm inistration for admission purposes. Applications are available from Educational Testing Service at the addresses listed on page 11 of this book. Some institutions use these scores for internal purposes in their intensive English programs only.

Each exam is offered six times each year. Scores for these administrations are sent to the test taker and to any colleges or universities to which the student is applying approximately five weeks after the exam.

In fact.

Pdf toefl cliff

Scores for this type of the exam are reported in roster form only to the institution at which the exam was taken. You may not register for either of these tests at the institution in which the exam is given. Any foreign student can take these examinations. It is intended only to give you a general idea of what your total score might be. If it is included. There have been experimental sections on the examination from time to time.

The scale is n o t one that has been produced by Educational Testing Service. The converted score is different for each examination.

This test is currently given at four Friday and Saturday administrations each year. W hen there is such a section. You must consult your Bulletin of Inform ation to determ ine if it is included in the administration you intend to take. It is based on the difficulty of the test. An additional section may be added in the future. In Part V of this guide. The essays are read by composition specialists who assign scores based on a six-point scoring guide.

It is a test intended to measure proficiency in spoken English. Strategies and practice material for the writing test are presented in Part VI of this book.

In this test. The scores assigned by the readers are then averaged. Each essay is read by at least two readers. It takes approximately thirty minutes. You may not bring any paper.

New Jersey. You may cancel your score on the day of the test by completing the score cancellation section of your TO EFL answer sheet. NJ Also bring three or four sharpened medium- soft Num ber 2 or HB black lead pencils. Box Bring your admission ticket or official authorization. The uses of the Institutional Adm inistration are quite limited. They are the same in difficulty and subject m atter tested. Previous scores will be reported. For information on the above. If your school does not.

When you fill out the application form. For additional practice after you have finished using this book. TO E FL is administered in many countries. You should study all the material in this book. There are a limited num ber of seats in the testing center. Some educators suggest that if you have many spaces blank when time is almost up on a section. Remember to register as early as possible before the deadline date in the bulletin. Of course.

Simply raise your hand and ask for another answer sheet to finish the test beginning in the place that you realized the mistake. If you cannot attend the test center you are scheduled for on the date of your test. If you did not enter the test center and did not take the test. If you find that you have misplaced a num ber of answers. You may then request a partial refund for the original amount within sixty days of the original test date. To avoid this problem. A fter the examination. During the time allotted for a given section.

If you decide to take the test on a day other than the one that you originally applied for. If space and test m aterials are available. Changes in test dates are not allowed. Test center changes are no longer permitted.

If you are found working on another section. Box Princeton. Be sure to fill in the answer spaces correctly and completely and to fill in only one answer for each question. Fax Phone Number: G eneral Information: If there are two marks for one question on the answer sheet.

Before you go to the test. Your answer sheet should look something like this after you finish working your easy questions: If you finish them. Use the following system in Sections 2 and 3 to mark your answer sheet: One way that you can save time is by not reading the directions for each section. Answer easy questions immediately. While the other examinees are reading the directions.

If you know the directions for each section. O f course. Act quickly. Avoid wasting that time. By using this overall approach. The scoring machine may count extraneous marks as t im e wrong answers.

Ability Tested 2. Suggested A pproach with Samples This section features the p a t t e r n e d p l a n o f a t t a c k for each subject area and emphasizes important test-taking techniques and strategies and how to apply them to a variety of problem types. Directions 4. Basic Skills Necessary 3. You must be able to listen only and then choose your answer.

Suggested Approach with Samples You will always hear three different voices in this section. The question will be spoken just one time. A fter you hear a conversation and the question about it. You must be able to distinguish between words that sound similar and be able to comprehend entire sentences. At the end of each conversation. Ability Tested This section tests your ability to understand and interpret spoken English.

It typically lasts 30 to 35 minutes and contains 50 questions. W hat d o e s W hat are the speakers talking about? Third Voice: W hat does the m an want to do tonight? You will read: A go to a party B stay hom e C see a movie D sleep Answer B m eans most nearly the same as what the m an said he would like to do.

R em em ber that it is best to glance at the four possible answers before you hear the conversation. W hat d id suggest t h a t W hat w ill Several types of questions often appear in this section. In this way. They will not be written. A fter each conversation. The conversations and questions will be spoken just one time. W hat d o e s W hat h a d You will hear: This is my first sem ester in Orange Lake.

W hat else is there to do in the park? You can swim in the enclosed area. But when I do get some time. Is the park very far from here? Is there a restaurant in the park? W hen you hear a question. M ore questions will follow. Which of the following activities is NOT mentioned as being available in the national park? A Tubing. C Volleyball. D You must be prepared to walk back up the river with your inner tube. B Swimming. B The water is chilly. The water is quite cold.

D Picnicking. Rem em ber how old car and truck tires had rubber inner tubes inside? Everybody around here knows what it is. Which of the following is true about tubing at the park?

A It is done in a plugged up old tire. That really sounds great to me. W hat does it cost? Answer C was not mentioned in the conversation as being an activity available in the national park. C The water flows upstream. It gets you outdoors in the wintertime in. One speaker will deliver the talk and another speaker will ask a number of questions about w hat was said. Before the conversation. They will not be written out for you. A fter each talk. The talks and questions will be spoken just one time.

Suggested Approach with Samples In this section you will hear talks. The answer is B. Rem em ber not to take notes or write in your test booklet in any way during the Listening Com prehension section. W here did this talk most likely take place? As you become more sure of your balance.

Now slide your right ski forward and give a little push with your left pole. Your arms should alternate with your leg movements. This is a lot like walking. Lean a bit forward. For now. Before the talk. H ere is one more sample question.

It is necessary to tune your ear to English. Speak to native English speakers as often as possible. O ther questions will follow. Also you should 1. C It makes the ski surface shiny.

While any of the answers might be true. D It prevents falling. B At a ski resort. B It provides glide. Rem em ber not to take notes or write in your test booklet in any way during the Listening Comprehension section. D In a national forest.

The ski instructor never m entioned shiny skis or falling down. A O n a frozen lake. W hat does wax do for cross-country skiing? A It provides friction. C A t a health spa. Make use of the language laboratory if your school has one. Make telephone calls to recorded messages such as weather reports. Use the cassettes included with this book to take practice tests 1 through 6.

If you miss a question. Practice for the Listening Com prehension section is included in this guide in the practice tests. All scripts are included in Part V. A ttend lectures at your school or in your city. Rem em ber the suggestions listed here when you take these tests.

This section typically lasts 25 minutes and contains approximately 40 questions. PART A d ir ectio n s This section is designed to measure your ability to recognize language that is appropriate for standard written English. There are two types of questions in this section. Basic Skills Necessary You need to know correct grammar well enough that an error will be immediately evident.

Part A. Fill in the space so that the letter inside the oval cannot be seen. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases. You must choose the most economical. W ritten Expression. Many things that are acceptable in spoken English are not acceptable in formal written English. Choose the one word or phrase that best completes the sentence. Questions are incomplete sentences. For P art A questions you should 1. A person may not. If you still are not sure.. T here might be other possible ways of completing the sentence.

A forwarded rapidly B advanced rapidly C advanced forward quickly D advanced in a rapidly m anner. C is correct it has no complement because live does not require a complement. If you cannot find the correct answer. During the Daytona I wish you would tell m e A who is being lived next door B who does live in the next door C who lives next door D who next door was living W hen you read the sentence with A. R ead th e entire sentence. B can also be elim inated because does and in the are not necessaiy in this sentence.

D is incorrect because it does not follow that order. If th at is not correct.

Cliffs Toefl Preparation anesi.info

Live usually does not take a complement and therefore cannot be passive. A life may be lived. If you can discover why A is incorrect.

If an error does not become immediately evident. The four underlined parts of the sentence are marked A. If you do not realize that B is correct and go on to C. Thus A is incorrect. If you realize that advanced in B is a suitable verb for the sentence. R ead the entire sentence.

Be sure to review the additional strategies for elimination of incorrect answers in style questions beginning on page For Part B questions you should 1. D is also incorrect because rapidly is used in the position of an adjective. Identify the one underlined word or phrase that must be changed in order for the sentence to be correct.

In the U nited States. Tom atoes grows all year long in Florida. IT You should immediately notice that much modifies non-count nouns and that holidays is a count noun. C is the correct answer.

But you see by the context of the entire sentence that the sentence is not speaking of a single tomato. This section also tests your knowledge of English vocabulary. This section requires a strong college-level vocabulary. The section contains approximately 50 questions.

The T O E FL stresses reading passages that are typical of those you will read in colleges and universities. You must find synonyms for selected words from the passage among the four answer choices that you are given. For questions A strong vocabulary cannot be developed instantly.

Knowing the meanings of prefixes. Answer all of the questions following a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage. Each one is followed by approximately ten questions about it. It grows over a long period of time spent reading widely and learning new words. Samples The majority of the reading selections will be factual readings from science. Some information may not be exactly the same in the reading as you have supposed. Perhaps something from your major field of study will appear.

Look at the following example rem em ber to glance at the questions first. Do not spend more than a few seconds doing this. If this happens. Do not spend time looking at all of the answer choices. The answer choices will generally be the same part of speech as the word tested.

Do not try to look at an answer choice and then skim the reading looking for the answer. Before you read anything. Which of the following was borrowed from A thens by the U nited States? The Spartan system. The present system of a well-rounded education followed in the U nited States is based on the ancient Athenian idea. Both had a city-state type of government. It can be inferred from this reading that A Athens and Sparta were friendly with each other B Athens was attacked by other warlike nations C A thens never fought other people D the cultural aspects of Athenian culture made a g reat impression on the world.

The latter city left its mark in the fields of art. Sparta was hostile. A thens and Sparta were the two most advanced G reek cities of the Hellenic period B. Sentence 6 tells you that it was also im portant in the theory of well-rounded education. You will know from the entire reading that C is also true. A may be true. D can be inferred from the statem ent in sentence 5 that the latter Athens left its mark. You will see from sentence 5 that the latter A thens left is mark in the fields of art and philosophy.

C is definitely not true. A This question is answered in sentence 6. The sixth sentence tells you that Athens had a rell-rounded education that had an influence on the U nited States. Sentence 2 says that both cities took slaves from the people they conquered.

Cliff pdf toefl

You must decide which of the answer choices you can assume to be true from the facts given in the reading selection. If they conquered people. The correct answer is D. The reading said that Sparta was hostile and warlike. D You know from the second sentence that A and B are true.

A You must know the meanings of the former and the latter. Sentence 4 in this reading mentioned Sparta first and Athens second. Now they are used to detect atmospheric pollution.

Cliff pdf toefl

It can be said without exaggeration that four out of five lichens bear his 10 name. During the first half of the twentieth century. C Today lichens are used to detect atmospheric pollution. H e selected the most common reagents used by the chemists of his time.

Botanists from all over the world sent samples to his laboratory to be analyzed and classified.

cliffs toefl preparation guide.pdf

Which of the following is N O T true? Lichenologists all over the world still use these reagents. During the second half of the last 5 century. H e was the first to realize the importance of using chemical reagents in the taxonomy of lichens. Finnish-born botanist William Nylander taught at the University of Helsinki for a num ber of years and later moved to Paris.

D Most botanists consider lichens to be a compound species.

Cliffs Toefl Preparation Guide.pdf

All of the following are true about Nylander EX CEPT A he was the first to use chemical reagents in the taxonomy of lichens B he believed that lichens were simple plants C he was an esteem ed lichenologist D he taught botany at the University of Paris 8.

How could William Nylander best be described? A Choices C and D are true. The last paragraph states that he vehemently opposed the theories that lichens are a compound species. This is explained in sentence 3. A is not true. Sentence 1 says he taught at the University of Helsinki and then moved to Paris.

Choices A. According to accepted nineteenth-century theories. D is not true and is the correct answer. D Choices A. C Choice B is an incorrect statem ent because Nylander used reagents to identify lichens. B The last sentence of the reading verifies B as the correct answer. Nylander was first to realize the importance of using chemical reagents and he discovered that atm ospheric pollutions hindered the development of lichens.

C This is the correct answer because ingenious m eans cleve or showing great practical knowledge or intelligence. Do all the exercises and take all the mini-tests that follow each review section. Learn a predeterm ined am ount of m aterial each week.

Be sure that you use the cross-referenced answer keys provided with each of the practice tests to refer back to this review and restudy rules and concepts that give you trouble.

The table of contents and answer keys will direct you quickly to sections you need to go over again. Subject Area Reviews with Exercises and Mini-Tests The following pages are designed to give you an intensive review in English grammar. If you still make errors. It is a formula that one makes to account for how a given grammatical construction usually behaves. It is generally true. In this guide: Parentheses indicate optional usage when used in a rule. T hen do the practice exercise at the end of each section.

A fter each group of lessons. A rule is not necessarily true in every instance. The book is on the table. The chemistry professor canceled class today. There can act as a pseudo-subject and is treated like a subject when changing word order to a question. Milk contains calcium. Examples of subjects: W e girls are not going to that movie. In some sentences. It rains quite often here in the summer.

The w eather was very bad yesterday. G eorge likes boats. It c a n n o t begin with a preposition. In the case of commands. Every sentence in English must have a subject. The subject may be a single noun. T he subject may be a noun phrase. As the subject of an impersonal verb. Coffee is delicious. It can act as a pronoun for a noun or can be the subject of an im personal verb.

It is hard to believe that he is dead. A noun phrase is a group of words ending with a noun. Joe has gone home. She must have gone to the bank. A verb phrase consists of one or more auxiliaries and one main verb. She will go to Boston next week. The verb may be a single word. They hate spinach. Mary is watching television. The auxiliaries always precede the main verb.

The verb may be a verb phrase. N ote: Every sentence must have a verb. John drives too fast. Jane is very tall. John is going to Miami tomorrow. Whom did they call yesterday? H e was smoking a cigarette. They called Mary yesterday. What did John buy? Jill was driving a new car. The complement c a n n o t begin with a preposition.

A modifier of time usually comes last if more than one modifier is present. A complement answers the question what? Examples of complements: John bought a cake yesterday. Every sentence does not require a complement. Very often it is a prepositional phrase. What does he want to drink? She saw John at the movies Whom did she see at the last night. Every sentence does not require a modifier.

Examples of prepositional phrases: A modifier answers the question when? It is similar to the subject because it is usually a noun or noun phrase. What was Jill driving?

H e wants to drink some w ater. What was he smoking? A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun. When was Jill swimming? Jo h n bought a book at the boo k sto re. Where did she drive? Where is the milk? Where did John buy a book? When did we eat dinner? The modifier normally follows the complement. She drove on the street the car.

How was he driving? Rem em ber that not every sentence has a complement or modifier. She drove the car on the street. It can contain determ iners the. Pat should have bought gasoline yesterday. Trees grow. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today. R em em ber that both subjects and complements are generally noun phrases. Harry is washing dishes right now.

Henry and M arcia have visited the president. A non-count noun is one that cannot be counted. George is cooking dinner tonight. It is possible. She opened her book. She opened a checking account at the bank last week.. If you wish to speak of one particular advertisement. Be sure that you know the plurals of irregular count nouns. The following list contains some irregular count nouns that you should know. M em orize th e w ords in the following ch art. Although advertising is a non-count noun.

W hen it m eans a num ber o f hours. Rem em ber that. The word time can be either countable or non-countable depending on the context. W hen it m eans an occasion. Some non-count nouns. This is one of the foods th at my doctor has forbidden me to eat. T here is too much advertising during television shows. Exercise 2: Count and Non-Count Nouns Identify the following nouns as count nouns or non-count nouns according to their usual meaning. W e have spent too much time on this homework. A baseball is round.

A n is used before words th at begin with a vowel sound. A is used before words that begin with a consonant sound. They can be used in a general statem ent or to introduce a subject which has not been previously mentioned. European eulogy euphemism eucalyptus house home heavy half uniform university universal union The following words begin with a vowel sound and thus m ust always be preceded by an.

Sugar is sweet. There is only one earth. With non-count nouns. The boy in the corner is my The speaker and the listener friend. The earth is round. Mount Andes McKinley earth.

Oranges are green until they ripen. Use the following generalizations as a guide for the use of the article the. Normally words such as breakfast. We went to school yesterday. There are three Susan Parkers in the telephone directory. Lake Erie the Red Sea. Stetson University ordinal numbers before nouns cardinal numbers after nouns the First World War. California historical documents the Constitution. South Africa. Venezuela continents Europe.

South America states Florida. Articles In the following sentences supply the articles a. If no article is necessary. Study the following formulas. Another and other are nonspecific while the other is specific.

O ther ones are poisonous too. If the subject is understood. Please give me the others. If it is a plural count noun that is omitted. Please give me the other. He does not need those books. Exercise 5: O ther Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of other. Please give me another one. Please give me another. There are thirty people in the room. Six people were in the store. O thers are poisonous too. This dictionary has a page missing. Please give me the other ones. This chemical is poisonous.

T he word other can n e v e r be plural if it is followed by a noun. Please give me the other one. O ne group was doing artillery p ra c tic e. This elevator is broken. The army was practicing its drills.

It is correct to say this one and that one. Those are dirty also. The first two were far too expensive. Simply use these or those as pronouns without adding ones. It is very im portant that you know whether a verb is regular or irregular. We looked at four cars today.

That one is also broken. You will notice that regular verbs are the same in the past tense and past participle. Given here is a list of some of the common irregular verbs in English. Examples of simple present tense: They understand the problem now.

Simple present is used to indicate a regular or habitual action. The verbs listed above are almost never used in the present or past progressive continuous. John walks to school every day.