Download free Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals course material and training, PDF file on pages. Product 6 - 33 O ly l & On n a e t e r U s I n c l e r a O Oracle Database 11g: SQL “Creating a database connection” at: anesi.info Oracle Database 11g: The Complete Reference. Kevin Loney. New York Chicago San Francisco. Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan. New Delhi San.
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Oracle Essentials: Oracle Database 11g, Fourth Edition by Rick Greenwald . A. What's New in This Book for Oracle Database 11g. . ing it overly tutorial. Oracle Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 2 () . Oracle Database 11g Release 2 () New Features in the Administrator's Guide . Product 6 - 33 Oracle Database 11g: Focus Areas I-9 Oracle Database 11g Documentation I- 37 generated in multiple formats such as PDF, HTML, Excel.
Run e the query. Verify that the following tables are present: When created, you can edit the objects using an edit dialog or one of the many context-sensitive menus. You cannot roll back the changes. Remember me on this computer.
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Oracle Application Framework Interview Questions. Each user owns a single schema. Schema objects can be created and manipulated with SQL and include tables, views, synonyms, O ly sequences, stored procedures, indexes, clusters, and database links.
This option prevents null values from entering the columns when a row is inserted without a value for the column. The default expression must match the data type of the column.
There are c several data types available: U s Number having precision p and scale s Precision is the total I n number of decimal digits and scale is the number of digits to the right of the decimal point; precision can range from 1 to c l e 38, and scale can range from —84 to Used to represent the precise difference between two datetime c l e values Note: These datetime data types are available with Oracle9i and later releases.
The constraint must be satisfied for the operation to succeed. Constraints are easy to reference if you give them a c r a meaningful name. Constraint names must follow the standard object-naming rules, except that the name cannot be the same as another object owned by the same user. You can a e define a constraint at the column or table level.
Functionally, a table-level constraint is the same as a n column-level constraint. You can create constraints c r a at either the column level or table level. Constraints defined at the column level are included when the column is defined.
Table-level constraints are defined at the end of the table definition and must O ly refer to the column or columns on which the constraint pertains in a set of parentheses. It is mainly as a table-level constraint. Constraints can be added to a table after c r a its creation and also be temporarily disabled.
The first example uses the column-level syntax to define the constraint. The second example uses the table-level syntax to define the constraint. Primary key constraint is discussed in detail later in this lesson. In fact, any number of rows can include nulls for columns without the NOT NULL n t e r s constraints because nulls are not considered equal to anything.
U I n Note: You define the constraint at c r a the table level when you want to create a composite unique key. A composite key is defined when there is not a single attribute that can uniquely identify a row. In that case, you can have a unique key O ly that is composed of two or more columns, the combined value of which is always unique and can identify rows.
Only one primary key can be created c r a for each table. This constraint enforces the uniqueness of the column or column combination O ly and ensures that no column that is part of the primary key can contain a null value. Because uniqueness is part of the primary key constraint definition, the Oracle server enforces the uniqueness by implicitly creating a unique index on the primary key column or columns. A composite c r a foreign key must be created by using the table-level definition. For example: Keywords e A l The foreign key is defined in the child table and the table containing the referenced column is the c r a parent table.
The foreign key is defined using a combination of the following keywords: The condition can use the same c r a constructs as the query conditions, with the following exceptions: If the violation ORA Any other constraint rules are not passed to the new table.
However, you can add constraints in the column definition. Without the alias, the following error is generated: You can issue DDL statements as long as O ly they do not modify any data in the table. The DROP command is executed only in n t e r U s the data dictionary, so access to the table contents is not required. When you drop a table, the database loses all the data in the table and all the indexes associated with it.
This is discussed in detail in the course titled Oracle Database 11g: Enforce rules on the data in a table whenever a row is inserted, updated, or deleted.
Prevent the deletion of a table. Prevent the creation of a table. Prevent the creation of data in a table. Create the DEPT table based on the following table instance chart.
Confirm that the table is created. Include only columns that you need. Create the EMP table based on the following table instance chart. Now, try to insert the same row again. You should get the following messages: You are taught c a the basics of creating and using views, sequences, and indexes.
In this lesson, you learn about the c views, sequences, indexes, and synonyms. O ly Many applications require the use of unique numbers as primary key values. You can also use indexes to enforce uniqueness on a column or a collection of columns.
A view is a c r a logical table based on a table or another view. A view contains no data of its own, but is like a window through which data from tables can be viewed or changed. The tables on which a view is O ly based are called base tables.
For example, views can be used to query information from multiple tables without the user knowing how to write a join statement. One view can be used to retrieve data from several tables. The feedback messages will be shown on the Script Output tabbed page. The number of aliases listed must match the number of expressions selected in the subquery.
You can display either the contents c a of the entire view or just specific rows and columns. Add an alias for each column name: This means that the view can be altered without dropping, re-creating, and regranting object privileges. O ly Note: Note that alternative names have been specified for the view. This is a requirement if any column of the view is derived from a function or an expression. All the required values must be present in the view.
Remember that you are adding values directly to the underlying table through the view. O ly Reference 11g, Release 1 You can also enforce constraints c r a at the database level. The view can be used to protect data integrity, but the use is very limited.
If there is an attempt to perform DML operations on rows that the view has not selected, an error is displayed, along with the UPDATE empvu20 n a e constraint name if that has been specified. No rows are updated because, if the department number were to change to 10, the view would no longer be able to see that employee. The statement removes the view definition c r a from the database.
However, dropping views has no effect on the tables on which the view was based. On the other hand, views or other applications based on the deleted views become invalid. In the syntax: Overview of Part 1 This practice covers the following topics: Complete questions 1—6 at the end of this lesson. You can create sequences and then use c them to generate numbers. O ly A typical usage for sequences is to create a primary key value, which must be unique for each row.
This can be a time-saving object because it can reduce the amount of application code needed to write a sequence- generating routine. Therefore, the same sequence can I n c l e r a O Oracle Database 11g: Syntax Define a sequence to generate sequential numbers automatically: The sequence starts at , does not allow I n Do not use the CYCLE option if the sequence is used to generate primary key values, unless you have a reliable mechanism that purges old rows faster than the sequence cycles.
The sequence is not tied to a table. Generally, you should name the sequence after its intended O use.
However, the sequence can be used anywhere, regardless of its name. It returns a unique value every time it is referenced, even for different users. I n When you reference sequence. The output of the query is shown below: The cache is c r a populated the first time you refer to the sequence. Each request for the next sequence value is retrieved from the cached sequence.
After the last sequence value is used, the next request for the O ly sequence pulls another cache of sequences into memory. Therefore, if you roll back a statement containing a sequence, the number is lost. If the sequence caches values in I n memory, those values are lost if the system crashes. However, if you do so, each table can contain gaps in the sequential numbers.
If you do not have an index on the column, then a O ly An index provides direct and fast access to rows in a table. An index is used and maintained automatically by the Oracle server. After an index is created, no direct activity is required by the user. This means that they t e r U s can be created or dropped at any time, and have no effect on the base tables or other indexes. When you drop a table, the corresponding indexes are also dropped. Users can create nonunique indexes on columns to speed up access to the rows.
The name of the index is the name that is given to the constraint. This is an index that a user can create.
You can manually create a unique index, but it is recommended that you create a unique t e r U s constraint, which implicitly creates a unique index. Specify BITMAP to indicate that the index is to be created with a bitmap for each n t e r with a key value as a bitmap. U s distinct key, rather than indexing each row separately. Each DML operation that is committed on a table with indexes means that the indexes must be updated.
The more indexes that O ly you have associated with a table, the more effort the Oracle server must make to update all the indexes after a DML operation. A unique index is then created automatically. To change an index, you must drop it and then re-create it. O ly In the syntax, index is the name of the index. If you drop a table, indexes and constraints are automatically dropped but views and sequences remain. You can create c a synonyms to give an alternative name to a table.
With synonyms, you can: Creating a synonym eliminates the need to qualify the object name with the schema and provides you with an alternative name for a table, view, sequence, O ly procedure, or other objects.
This method can be especially useful with lengthy object names, such as views. Only the database administrator can drop a public synonym.
Indexes are designed to speed up query performance. However, not all indexes are created c r a manually. Overview of Part 2 This practice covers the following topics: Confirm that the view works. Department 50 needs access to its employee data. Create a view named DEPT50 that contains the employee numbers, employee last names, and department numbers for all employees in department For security purposes, do not allow an employee to be reassigned to another department through the view.
Display the structure and contents of the DEPT50 view. Test your view. Attempt to reassign Matos to department The sequence should start at and have a maximum value of 1, Have your sequence increment by To test your sequence, write a script to insert two rows in the DEPT table.
Be sure to use the sequence that you created for the ID column. Add two departments: Education and Administration. Confirm your additions. Run the commands in your script. Call it EMP. Creating a database connection 1. Access the Demo: When you start SQL Developer for the first time, you need to provide the path to the java. This is already done for you as a part of the classroom setup.
In any case, if you are prompted, enter the following path: To create a new database connection, in the Connections Navigator, right-click Connections.
Create a database connection using the following information: Connection Name: Enter the host name of the machine where your database server is running. Select the Save Password check box. Test the new connection. If the Status is Success, connect to the database using this new connection. If the status is Success, click the Connect button. Browsing the Tables in the Connections Navigator 7. In the Connections Navigator, view the objects available to you under the Tables node. Verify that the following tables are present: Expand the myconnection connection by clicking the plus sign next to it.
Expand the Tables icon by clicking the plus sign next to it. Click the Data tab. The tables data is displayed. Open a new SQL Worksheet. Examine the shortcut icons available for the SQL Worksheet. Introduction continued 3. View the shortcut icons in the SQL Worksheet. Specifically look for the Execute Statement and Run Script icons. There are four coding errors in this statement.
Can you identify them? Open a new worksheet. Your first task is to create some reports based on the data from the Human Resources tables. The HR department wants more descriptive column headings for its report on employees. Then run your query again. The HR department has requested a report of all employees and their job IDs. Display the last name concatenated with the job ID separated by a comma and space and name the column Employee and Title.
Separate each column output with a comma. Run your query. Create a report that displays the last name and department number for employee number The HR departments needs to find employees with high salary and low salary. Create a report to display the last name, job ID, and hire date for employees with the last c names of Matos and Taylor. Order the query in ascending order by hire date.
Display the last name and department ID of all employees in departments 20 or 50 in O ly ascending alphabetical order by name. Restricting and Sorting Data continued 6. Label the columns Employee and Monthly Salary, respectively.
The HR department needs a report that displays the last name and hire date for all employees who were hired in Create a report to display the last name and job title of all employees who do not have a manager. Sort data in descending order of salary and commissions. Members of the HR department want to have more flexibility with the queries that you are writing. They would like a report that displays the last name and salary of employees who O ly earn more than an amount that the user specifies after a prompt.
Enter when prompted for a value in a dialog box. Restricting and Sorting Data continued The HR department wants to run reports based on a manager.
The HR department wants the ability to sort the report on a selected column. You can test the data with the following values: Write a query to display the system date. Label the column Date. If your database is remotely located in a different time zone, the output will be the date for the operating system on which the database resides. The HR department needs a report to display the employee number, last name, salary, and salary increased by Label the column New Salary.
Run the revised query. Label the column Increase. Using Single-Row Functions to Customize Output continued Rewrite the query so that the user is prompted to enter a letter that starts the last name.
The HR department wants to find the duration of employment for each employee. For each employee, display the last name and calculate the number of months between today and the m y date on which the employee was hired.
Order your d e whole number. Round the number of months up to the closest A Note: Create a query to display the last name and salary for all employees. Each asterisk signifies a thousand dollars.
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